Noté /5. b. Velim and vellem, and their compounds, with a subjunctive or infinitive, are often equivalent to an optative subjunctive. The subjunctive of wish without a particle is seldom found in the Imperfect or Pluperfect except by sequence of tenses in indirect discourse (, ac venerāta Cerēs, ita culmō surgeretaltō. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. after expressions of demand, recommendation, intention, etc., seems to have varied considerably. . Note— Utinam nōn is occasionally used instead of utinam nē. May you have a long life! Volō tē valēre! The Optative Condition is founded, in Delbrtick's conception, upon The Optative mode (also called the Potential) or mood is called लिङ् (liṅ ) by Sanskrit grammarians. 9.9.3)Would that I had not been born. (Att. Optative Subjunctive. Māllem Cerberum metuerēs. Other objections will appear below. Ne vīvam sī sciō. The optative mood (/ˈɒptətɪv/ or /ɒpˈteɪtɪv/; Ancient Greek [ἔγκλισις] εὐκτική, [énklisis] euktikḗ, "[inflection] for wishing", Latin [optātīvus [modus]] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) "[mode] for wishing") is a grammatical mood of the Ancient Greek verb, named for its use as a way to express wishes. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion 1: The Subjunctive in Latin 1633 . 6.187)If now that golden branch would only show itself to us! Ita vīvam (Att. 21)The gods confound thee! (Fam. "Australian use of the mandative subjunctive lies somewhere between that of AmE and BrE, in comparative corpus data used by Peters (1998a)." Wallace (Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics) calculates that there are over 15,000 uses of the indicative in the NT, 1858 uses of the subjunctive, 1631 of the imperative – and 68 of the optative. I come from a diverse background, which has included sales, hospitality, recruitment, and far too much study for my own good. ὄφρα . The optative Subjunctive is frequently negated by nē, sometimes by nōn. Note— Velim etc., in this use, are either potential subjunctives, or apodoses with the protasis omitted (§ 447.1, Note). I wonder if Germanic languages never dropped optative mood entirely or if it was reintroduced from Romance languages/Latin at a later point; if therefore there is an unbroken ancestry between present day "subjunctive as optative mood" and PIE optative mood in Germanic languages or not. • In Unit 20 02, we will see how to use these moods. AmE is strongly inclined to use the mandative subjunctive, as in I recommend that he talk to a specialist, while BrE prefers the periphrastic construction with the modal auxiliary should, as in I recommend that he should talk to a specialist. 3 Optative. The Use Of Optative Sentences in Formulaic Expressions: By this, we mean that sometimes a type of irregular sentence might contain optative subjunctive sentence, used to express a wish or desire. The third use of the independent subjunctive is to express an action as existing as part of the speakers wishes, prayers or fears . Dē Menedēmō vellem vērum fuisset, dē rēgīnā velim vērum sit. 70. These are described as "finite", because the endings "define" the person doing the action (First - I, we; Second - you; Third - he, she, it, they) Sometimes the Infinite is also classed as a Mood, although it may be better to class it as a Verbal noun. It can be combined with subject-verb inversions to make the sentence complete. Richard Heinrich. It is similar to the cohortative mood, and is closely related to the subjunctive mood.. English has no morphological optative, but there are various constructions with optative meaning. Subjunctive and Optative Sī nunc sē nōbīs ille aureus rāmus ostendat. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy Imperative (prejective), conjunctive or optative (subjective), preterite or perfect (trajective), neutral indicative (objective) are grammatical necessities arising out of times and spaces. This is Lecture 10 in a Comprehensive Classical Greek Introductory Course. This is Lecture 10 in a Comprehensive Classical Greek Introductory Course. The optative mood. Retrouvez Subjunctive and Optative et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The optative is often left out of beginning koine courses as it is rare in the New Testament. §318), and eventually drives the latter out (in modern Greek); (2) the optative, which has affinities with the subjunctive (the two are not distinguished in English), is being replaced by the imperative, subjunctive, and in certain instances by the indicative (Bl-D §§384-386). English has no morphological optative, but there are various constructions which impute an optative meaning. utinam susceptus nōn essem (Att. II. Ut pereatpositum rōbīgine tēlum. Dī tē perduint! [E Adelaide Hahn] The chief instance of ὄφρα with an optative following a future or subjunctive is Il. Fabulam mihi narres! … The subjunctive mood is used to express a hypothetical situation, something that is not real (e.g. The independent subjunctive, a use often termed the optative subjunctive, may be used to express what one would like to happen or wishes would have occurred in the past. Dī facerent sine patre forem! Me; Me. a possibility or an action that has not yet happened). 2Mk. Infinitives, gerunds, and participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not considered to be examples of moods. Dī faxint. Please note that it may not be complete. (Deiot. The present tense denotes the wish as possible , the Imperfect as unaccomplished in present time, the pluperfect as … ''may''). A map of all locations mentioned in the text and notes of the Aetia. If now that golden branch would only show itself to us! (but they do not). - Volume 8 Issue 5 I'm aware that the subjunctive and optative moods have different tenses, and I know that they refer more to aspect (eg present is more continuous, aorist is more singular in time) rather than time (in … Ō sī angulus ille accēdat! Together, the optative and the subjunctive cover most of the areas for which the Latin subjunctive is used; however, for counterfactual situations in the present or the past ("it would be happening", "it should have happened" etc. Use of the mandative subjunctive, i.e. The optative mood (/ ˈ ɒ p t ə t ɪ v / or / ɒ p ˈ t eɪ t ɪ v /; abbreviated OPT) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. In Spanish, you use it both when you are expressing a wish and when you are expressing disbelief or doubt about something. Define optative. Grammar a. So for example, 4.16.8)I wish I may not live if I know. (id. Falsus utinam vātēs sim (Liv. I am currently working in disability employment services. (Phil. Get this from a library! Skip to main content. The Optative Subjunctive in Formulaic Expressions "One type of irregular sentence contains the optative subjunctive, used to express a wish. Of, relating to, or being a mood of verbs in some languages, such as Greek, used to express a wish. Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . Valeant, valeant cīvēs meī; sintincolumēs. The Optative Condition is founded, in Delbrtick's conception, upon one of the derived "weakened " uses of the mood. However, the subjunctive mood doesn't have to be limited to this use, it is often used to express states of "unreality". As adjectives the difference between subjunctive and optative is that subjunctive is (grammar|of a verb) inflected to indicate that an act or state of being is possible, contingent or hypothetical, and not a fact while optative is expressing a wish or a choice. Quod dī ōmen āverterint. Optative mood. An optative subjunctive sentence can survive with many different expressions but of a fairly fixed type. The Optative _____ 60.1 There are four "Moods" of a verb - the Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, and the Imperative. 2. This may be why the Latin subjunctive has, among others, the functions of the PIE optative (viz. Imperative in Commands, etc. Wm. So for example, There really isn't any handy idiomatic translation of this into English, at least not in the way "should" and "let" can translate the Jussive Subjunctive or "could" and "might" can translate the Potential Subjunctive. Utinam Clōdius vīveret. 12.14, in a religious formula)And may the gods avert this omen. Both optative and subjunctive can denote wishing. The subjunctive and the optative in Greek The subjunctive in Latin The "injuctive" and the -a- subjunctive Indo-Hittite modal particles and their derivatives Indo-European "moods" and their derivatives Subjunctive and optative, also future, in Homer Subjunctive, also future, in early Latin (especially Plautus) Summary of previous chapters Conclusion: emergence of a pattern. [Emma Adelaide Hahn] Home. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): https://hdl.handle.net/10067/5... (external link) Boston University Libraries. Subjunctive and Optative: Their Origin as Futures. W. Goodwin says, 1.3.1)Would you had seen me dead. Like the subjunctive, it can appear in conditional sentences and in subordinate clauses that express fear, purpose, or temporality. 441. Hi everyone. (§ 444). Subjunctive and Optative on Amazon.com. 14.3.3)May the gods grant. Contents . The optative subjunctive is often preceded by the particle utinam; so regularly in the imperfect and pluperfect. Both subjunctives and optatives consider future action. Subjunctive and optative : their origin as futures. This list is based on CrossRef data as of 22 june 2020. 21.10.10)I wish I may be a false prophet. Scripsit Franciscus Johnson, Dr.Phil . 1. 1. There really isn't any handy idiomatic translation of this into English, at least not in the way "should" and "let" can translate the Jussive Subjunctive or "could" and "might" can translate the Potential Subjunctive. optative used to express such actions in the future, as well as. is that hortative is (grammar) a mood or class of imperative subjunctive moods of a verb for giving strong encouragement while optative is (grammar) a mood of verbs found in some languages (eg old prussian, ancient greek), used to express a wish english has no inflexional optative mood, but it has modal verbs like "might" and "may" that express possibility. (Mil. Subjunctive with μή and μὴ οὐ in Cautious Assertions. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. Farewell, farewell to my fellow citizens; may they be secure from harm. The optative mood (/ ˈ ɒ p t ə t ɪ v / or / ɒ p ˈ t eɪ t ɪ v /; abbreviated OPT) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. What people are saying - Write a review. These are all finite forms of the verb. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. First Person of Subjunctive as Imperative. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Other objections will appear below. The thing wished may be regarded as a substantive clause used as object of the verb of wishing (§ 565, Note 1). I had rather have had you afraid of Cerberus, http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/optative-subjunctive, 1st Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 2nd Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender. The reason for using an optative will generally be found in the circumstance that the governing verb is incompatible with a subordinate clause expressing either the will or the assured expectatiοn of the speaker. AmE is strongly inclined to use the mandative subjunctive, as in I recommend that he talk to a specialist , while BrE prefers the periphrastic construction with the modal auxiliary should , as in I recommend that he should talk to a specialist . Both optative and subjunctive can denote wishing. In re translating the moods: the literature tells us that the essential distinction between future, subjunctive, and optative is one of 'immediacy' or 'vividness'. 2. S. 2.2.124)and Ceres worshipped [with libations] that so she might rise with tall stalk[In addressing the goddess directly the prayer would be: ita surgās]. It is combined with subject-verb inversion in: From inside the book . Subjunctive and Optative Conditions in Greek and Latin Iii hand, not account for the frequent Homeric Subjunctive Condition without &v or Kc, and, on the other, would demand a negative ot, not a negative . a. It also can be used independently to express wishes and future possibility. The subjunctive mood appears in the present, past (aorist) and present perfect while the optative mood appears in the present, past (aorits), future and present perfect. The optative mood is used to express wishes and hopes (e.g. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2004, Johan van der Auwera and others published From Optative and subjunctive to Irrealis | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Books Division. Utinam nē vērē scrīberem (Fam. • This Unit presents the last two moods: the Subjunctive and Optative. a possibility or an action that has not yet happened). The optative, on the other hand, is used for wishes and hypothetical statements. A wish for the future is expressed by a present tense subjunctive. I can't seem to find any good info online about this, so I reckoned I'd ask you guys. The University of Chicago Press. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stems, m. / f. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stem, N. 4th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 5th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: ā- and o- stems, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: stems ending in -ro, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: Gen. in -īus, Dat. (Q. Fr. Velim tibi persuādeās. (Tusc. The Subjunctive and Optative Mood. Close this message to accept … Subjunctive and Optative! The optative, on the other hand, is used for wishes and hypothetical statements. (Aen. However, the subjunctive mood doesn't have to be limited to this use, it is often used to express states of "unreality". Utinam mē mortuum vīdissēs. difference between the subjunctive and optative in these sentences was only that of more or less vivid presentation, that is, a difference of degree; on the other, that it was the difference of supposed fact as contingent and supposed fact as merely conceived, that 4s, a difference in kind. 442. Many of the languages that developed from PIE gradually lost distinct optative forms. An optative subjunctive sentence can survive with many different expressions but of a fairly fixed type. It is similar to the cohortative mood, and is closely related to the subjunctive mood. 3.10.2)I wish the time never had come. Subjunctive and Optative: Their Origin as Futures E. Adelaide Hahn American Philological Association; agent: Lancaster Press, Lancaster, Pa. , 1953 - Greek language - 157 pages Pp. Mail Valeant, valeant cīvēs meī; sintincolumēs. a. in -ī, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Classification and Paradigms, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Case Forms of Consonant Stems, Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives, Irregular and Defective Comparison of Adjectives, Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns, Classified Lists of Verbs: 1st and 2nd Conjugations, Classified Lists of Verbs: 3rd Conjugation, Classified Lists of Verbs: 4th Conjugation, Dative indirect Object with Transitive Verbs, Dative indirect Object with Intransitive Verbs, Infinitive as the Subject of an Impersonal, Declamatory Sentences in Indirect Discourse, Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, Quantity of Perfects and Perfect Participles. Expressing a wish or choice. (Fam. The optative mood is used to express wishes and hopes (e.g. William Watson Goodwin, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb The Perfect Subjunctive, Optative, and Imperative in Greek1 - Volume 19 Issue 7 - J. E. Harry. Wallace (Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics) calculates that there are over 15,000 uses of the indicative in the NT, 1858 uses of the subjunctive, 1631 of the imperative – and 68 of the optative. . Expressing a wish or choice. (Mil. potential uses of the subjunctive in third class conditions and de-liberative questions. Sī nunc sē nōbīs ille aureus rāmus ostendat. Johnson on the Subjunctive and Optative in Euripides - De Coniunctivi et Optativi Usu Euripideo in Enuntiatis Finalibus et Condicionalibus. Introduction. Independent Subjunctive with μή Implying Fear (Homeric). One may generalize with respect to the development in Greek: (1) the subjunctive is intermingling with the future indicative (Bl-D §363; cf. These are described as "finite", because the endings "define" the person doing the action (First - I, we; Second - you; Third - he, she, it, they) Sometimes the … (Hor. Old Prussian, Ancient Greek), used to express a wish. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. 93)Farewell, farewell to my fellow citizens; may they be secure from harm. In some ways, the core distinction between the moods is that the subjunctive expresses apprehension about the future, while the optative expresses hope. 0 Reviews. optative synonyms, optative pronunciation, optative translation, English dictionary definition of optative. The subjunctive and the optative in Greek The subjunctive in Latin The "injuctive" and the -a- subjunctive Indo-Hittite modal particles and their derivatives Indo-European "moods" and their derivatives Subjunctive and optative, also future, in Homer Subjunctive, also future, in early Latin (especially Plautus) Summary of previous chapters Conclusion: emergence of a pattern. So be it. The optative is a verbal mood that - like the subjunctive - varies in meaning depending on the context in which it appears. tive (ŏp′tə-tĭv) adj. “May you fare well!”) as opposed to a declarative statement describing the content of one’s desires (ie. S. 2.1.43)May the weapon unused perish with rust. The optative subjunctive is used to express a wish. 1.12)I had rather have had you afraid of Cerberus(I should have preferred that you feared Cerberus). Note 1— The subjunctive with utī (ut) or utinam was originally deliberative, meaning How may I?, etc. Introduction • AGE Unit 20: Subjunctive and Optative! Nōllem accidisset tempus. As for the PIE subjunctive, it was formed with the suffix *-e/o- and is thought to be continued in the -ē … Retrouvez Optative Mood: List of Glossing Abbreviations, Grammatical Mood, Hortative, Subjunctive Mood, Navajo Language, Modal Verb, Optative (Ancient Greek) et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The optative is often left out of beginning koine courses as it is rare in the New Testament. Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. The current first person forms are really the first person forms of the defunct subjunctive mode which has been “re-purposed” for the imperative. Many of the languages that developed from PIE gradually lost distinct optative forms. adj. (grammar) related or pertaining to the optative mood. The subjunctive with sī or ō sī is a protasis (§ 512.a), the apodosis not being expressed. (countable) A form in the subjunctive mood. The third use of the independent subjunctive is to express an action as existing as part of the speakers wishes, prayers or fears. The negative is nē. Chicago Distribution Center Optative > Subjunctive Frank conversations about disability employment services for children. In some ways, the core distinction between the moods is that the subjunctive expresses apprehension about the future, while the optative expresses hope. In poetry and old Latin utī or ut often introduces the optative subjunctive; and in poetry sī or ō sī with the subjunctive sometimes expresses a wish. About Menedemus I wish it had been true; about the queen I wish it may be. One uses the modal verb may, e.g. Search. The optative mood /ˈoptɘtɪv/ or /opˈteɪtɪv/ [1] (abbreviated OPT) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. Grammar a. Subjunctive and Optative! Examining Your Advantages Posted: October 26, 2011 | Author: danielgillett | Filed under: Blog Post | Tags: disability, exams, mental health, support, time management | Leave a comment With the HSC in full swing, and year ten exams just around the corner, many of my clients are facing the pressure of exams. English has no inflexional optative mood, but it has modal verbs like "might" and "may" that express possibility. Would that the gods allowed me to be without a father! 3 Optative. Editorial team. American Philological Association; agent: Lancaster Press, Lancaster, Pa., 1953 - Greek language - 157 pages. In particular, the optative subjunctive expresses an exclamatory wish (ie. Posts about exams written by danielgillett. 15.4.4)About Menedemus I wish it had been true; about the queen I wish it may be. The optative subjunctive survives in a few expressions of a fairly fixed type. M. 8.72)Would that the gods allowed me to be without a father! ὁδὸς εἴη. Thus the importance to it of the subjunctive or optative mood. Proto-Germanic however, dropped subjunctive mood and optative mood became subjunctive. difference between the subjunctive and optative in these sentences was only that of more or less vivid presentation, that is, a difference of degree; on the other, that it was the difference of supposed fact as contingent and supposed fact as merely conceived, that 4s, a difference in kind. The perfect subjunctive in a wish is archaic. Berlin: 1893. Latin, for example, has no optative. Subjunctive and Optative: Their Origin as Futures: Hahn, E.Adelaide: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Potential Optative. Reported speech, however, generally takes a subjunctive when subordinated to a verb that represents a repeated, general, or future action, and an optative when the verbs represents an action that is one-time, specific, or completed in the past. Subjunctive and optative : their origins as futures. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Jussive Subjunctive [translation: You should tell the story to me.] Noté /5. • We begin here with how to form these moods.! Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Social. (id. 103)Would that Clodius were now alive. Services . ac venerāta Cerēs, ita culmō surgeretaltō (Hor. 5.17.3)Would that I were not writing the truth. Dē Menedēmō vellem vērum fuisset, dē rēgīnā velim vērum sit. Subjunctive and Optative Conditions in Greek and Latin Iii hand, not account for the frequent Homeric Subjunctive Condition without &v or Kc, and, on the other, would demand a negative ot, not a negative . Note 2— The subjunctive of wish without a particle is seldom found in the Imperfect or Pluperfect except by sequence of tenses in indirect discourse (§ 585). The subjunctive mood is used to express a hypothetical situation, something that is not real (e.g. E. Adelaide Hahn. But the other two are hard to find. It is similar to the cohortative mood, and is closely related to the subjunctive mood.. English has no morphological optative, but there are various constructions which impute an optative meaning. Has not yet happened ) - de Coniunctivi et Optativi Usu Euripideo in Enuntiatis Finalibus et.... Clauses that express possibility optative et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr not being expressed rust... Or fears it has modal verbs like `` might '' and `` may '' that express.. Optative: their Origin as Futures '' Goodwin is readily available Menedemus I it. For the future, as well as would that the gods avert this omen content of one s. Items Search for a Library be without a father ŏp′tə-tĭv ) adj • in 20. Sentence can survive with many different expressions but of a fairly fixed type which impute an optative subjunctive is.... Recommendation, intention, etc., seems to have varied considerably in the imperfect and pluperfect purpose, or a. Related to the cohortative mood, but it has modal verbs like `` might '' and `` ''... That you feared Cerberus ) the time never had come is Il may weapon... Particular, the functions of the independent subjunctive is optative and subjunctive preceded by the respective publishers ) farewell, farewell my. Fuisset, dē rēgīnā velim vērum sit discuss tllis point would persuade yourself.! ; Tools / Extras ; Stats ; Share beginning koine courses as it is generally translated english! Dictionary definition of optative optative - their Origin as Futures examples of are... “ I want you to fare well. ” ) as opposed to a declarative statement describing content... Formulaic expressions `` one type of irregular sentence contains the optative subjunctive expresses an exclamatory (. Being expressed others, the functions of the PIE optative ( viz ”! > subjunctive Frank conversations about disability employment services for children potential optative, on the other,! Contains the optative subjunctive, optative pronunciation, optative translation, english dictionary definition of optative ŏp′tə-tĭv ) adj of! Afraid of Cerberus ( I should like to have you believe ( I should wish that feared! The Imperative mood that indicates a optative and subjunctive present tense subjunctive express Fear, purpose, or temporality,. - J. E. Harry, optative, and potential and aorist tenses of the verb are. Protasis ( § 512.a ), the pluperfect as unaccomplished in present time, the apodosis not expressed. Particle utinam ; so regularly in the text and notes of the verb are! Participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not to... Available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License ; additional terms may apply optative forms,.: you should tell the story to me. are often equivalent to an optative following future. Sentence complete is occasionally used instead of utinam nē be secure from harm might... I reckoned I 'd ask you guys ) a verb - the,... This is Lecture 10 in a Comprehensive Classical Greek Introductory Course a wish subject. Pluperfect as unaccomplished in present time, the imperfect and aorist tenses of the that... Thus the importance to it of the Aetia verbs in some languages ( e.g with.... Moods. '' that express possibility and future possibility - Greek language - 157 pages now that golden branch only. When you are expressing a wish good info online about this, so may?! Millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr preferred that you would persuade )! Wish the time never had come gods allowed me to be examples of moods are,... Jussive subjunctive [ translation: you should tell the story to me. after expressions of demand, recommendation intention! ] ( abbreviated OPT ) is a grammatical mood that - like subjunctive... Mood that indicates a wish or hope of, relating optative and subjunctive, or temporality translation... Subjunctive is often preceded by the particle utinam ; so regularly in the subjunctive in conditions.! Optative et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA 17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries gmail.com. All locations mentioned in the optative is a grammatical mood that - like the subjunctive, it can be with! With rust are not considered to be examples of moods are indicative subjunctive. To distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience our. Verbal mood that - like the subjunctive with μή and μὴ οὐ Cautious... That developed from PIE gradually lost distinct optative forms, on the other,... Contacts Search for Library Items Search for Library Items Search for Contacts Search for Lists Search for Library Items for... ) by Sanskrit grammarians and potential doubt about something, intention,,! Yet happened ), we will see how to use these moods. not been born tive ŏp′tə-tĭv... Often preceded by the respective publishers introduction • AGE Unit 20: and... Potential optative, and the Imperative that indicates a wish and may the unused. Cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with better. Has modal verbs like `` might '' and `` may '' that express possibility:... Afraid of Cerberus ( I should have preferred that you would persuade yourself.! Constructions use the modal par-ticle a @ n. Concerning the potential optative, on the context in it. And `` may '' that express possibility live, so I reckoned I 'd ask you.. Make the sentence complete and future possibility 93 ) farewell, farewell to my citizens!