6 words related to neoclassicism: artistic style, idiom, arts, humanistic discipline, humanities, liberal arts. What are synonyms for neoclassicism? Some notable authors who have won Brazil's Prêmio Machado de Assis include: Rachel de Queiroz, Cecília Meireles, João Guimarães Rosa, Érico Veríssimo, Lúcio Cardoso, and Ferreira Gullar. Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the Neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France which then became one the most prominent and iconic architectural styles in the Western World.. relations of contemporary Latin America The role of theory, as a methodological heuristic tool, has been overvalued in recent decades due to the influence of American intellectual production. Latin American countries have long exhibited low levels of saving rates when compared to other countries in relatively similar stages of economic development (e.g., Asian economies). Neoclassicism in Seventeenth-Century ParisA Century of Greatness.In 1600, no great playwrights comparable to the English Shakespeare or Jonson or the Spanish Lope de Vega or Calderón were active in France. Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions. Political turmoil in Latin American countries such as Cuba at this time influenced the literary boom as well. Across cultures – An interconnected world is not as recent as we think. Both writers were the most important emergents in an important controversy in argentinian literature between the so-called Florida Group of Borges and other writers and artists that used to meet at the Richmond Cafe in the centrical Florida street of Buenos Aires city vs. the Boedo Group of Roberto Arlt that used to meet at the Japanese Cafe in the most periferical Boedo borough of the same city. The Boom launched Latin American literature onto the world stage. Saint Peters - Facade 1606 - 1612 by Carlo Maderno - Piazza designed by Bernini (1656 - 1667) - Baroque in Italy. These souvenirs made their way across the continent, into North America, and through Latin America in the 19th century, furthering the expansion. Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, and usually mandatory elements of high school curricula. This resistance literature was promoted by prominent modernists including the aforementioned José Martí (1853-1895) and Rubén Darío (1867-1916). Downloadable! Martí warned readers about the imperialistic tendencies of the United States and described how Latin America should avoid allowing the United States to intervene in their affairs. According to literary critic Harold Bloom, the most eminent Latin American author of any century is the Argentine Jorge Luis Borges. Doña Barbara is a realist novel describing the conflict between civilization and barbarism in the plainlands of South America, and is a masterpiece of criollismo. His book Cien Años de Soledad (1967), is one of the most important works in world literature of the 20th century. Cultural independence spread across Latin America during this time, and writers depicted Latin American themes and locations in their works. Today, neoclassical … Notes on Precursors to Independence Liberators . Throughout the second half of the 18th century and most of the 19th century, neoclassicism remained the predominant building style in Europe, spreading from Western to Eastern regions of the continent and much of Latin America and the United States, where newly formed governments sought to emulate the architecture of ancient Greece, the birthplace of democracy. Are You Learning English? Abstract. As a matter of fact, almost every single visitor to the city will direct their steps in the direction of the Museum El Prado, likely the most emblematic building of Spanish Neoclassicism. 80 Accesses. Authors such as El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Guaman Poma wrote accounts of the Spanish conquest that show a perspective that often contrasts with the colonizers' accounts. Neoclassical architecture, which began in the mid 18th century, looks to the classical past of the Graeco-Roman era, the Renaissance, and classicized Baroque to convey a new era based on Enlightenment principles. 80, Summer 2017 Antonyms for neoclassicism. — (IDB Working Paper Series ; 842) Includes bibliographic references. Neoclassicism in America Neoclassical art was common across many parts of Europe, particularly in architecture. Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic Carlos Monsiváis and Pedro Lemebel, who draw also on the long-standing tradition of essayistic production as well as the precedents of engaged and creative non-fiction represented by the Uruguayan Eduardo Galeano and the Mexican Elena Poniatowska, among others. Brazilian authors who have won the Camões Prize, the most prestigious literary award in the Portuguese language, include: João Cabral de Melo Neto, Rachel de Queiroz, Jorge Amado, Antonio Candido, Autran Dourado, Rubem Fonseca, Lygia Fagundes Telles, João Ubaldo Ribeiro, and Ferreira Gullar. Glossary of Art Terms. Neoclassicism in America. The Venezuelan Romulo Gallegos wrote in 1929 what came to be one of the most well known Latin American novels in the twentieth century, Doña Barbara. Skip to content. Economic development-Latin America. The failure to attain higher levels of relative income represents what I call the development problem in Latin America. N2 - The promotion of classicism in the visual arts in late eighteenth and nineteenth-century Latin America and the need to “revive” buen gusto (good taste) are the themes of this collection of essays. Notes Neoclassicism in Latin America. 13 Altmetric. Retrieved 4 August 2011. The fragrance of guava: Conversations with Gabriel García Márquez. Neocolonialism in Latin America The term neocolonialism is used by some authors to describe the relationship of nominally independent countries in Latin America with metropolitan or developed countries from independence in the 1820s to the present. Perhaps, the Boom's culmination arrived in Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental Yo, el supremo (1974). PLAY. Index for Baroque and Neoclassical Latin American Humanities (1600-1810) Notes on Baroque Characteristics ; Notes on Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Triumph of the Name of Jesus - 1676 - 1679 - Giovanni Battista Gauli - Baroque in Italy. Miguel Ángel Asturias was awarded the Nobel prize for literature, making his magical realist, metaphor-heavy, folkloristic and sometimes politically charged novels widely known in Europe and North America. Saving Rates in Latin America: A Neoclassical Perspective Andr es Fern andez Ay˘se _Imrohoro glu Cesar E. Tamayo y 7th February 2018 Abstract Latin American countries have long exhibited low levels of saving rates when compared to other countries in relatively similar stages of economic development (e.g., Asian economies). José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the United States and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. The buildup in borrowing had been enormous. Latin America Saving rate Motivated by this fact, this paper examines the time path of the saving rates between 1970 and 2010 in three Latin American countries –Chile, Colombia, and Mexico– through the lens of the neoclassical growth model. The development of archaeology was crucial in the emergence of Neoclassical architecture. Its elegant, balanced works revived the order and harmony of ancient Greek and Roman art. Chuck the Libertarian continues: For all your railing against capitalism and in favor of socialism/Communism, the best controlled experiment we’ve had for that is East versus West Germany. [25][23], "Spanish American literature" redirects here. Neoclassicism in America Exploration of some of the most influential Neoclassical artists and writers in america in the 18th and 19th centuries. Women writers of the nineteenth century often wrote about the inequalities in Latin America that were vestiges of colonialism such as the marginalization and oppression of Indigenous peoples, slaves, and women. 1. Neoclassicism adopted the hierarchy of painting that was established by the French Royal Academy of the Arts in 1669. The "libertadores" themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello. Motivated by this fact, this paper examines the time path of the saving rates between 1970 and 2010 in three Latin American countries {Chile, Colombia, and Mexico{ through the lens of … Andrés Fernández 1, Ayşe İmrohoroğlu 2 & Cesar E. Tamayo 3 IMF Economic Review volume 67, pages 791 – 823 (2019)Cite this article. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): https://www.econstor.eu/bitstr... (external link) [19], Among the greatest poets of the 20th century is Pablo Neruda; according to Gabriel García Márquez, Neruda "is the greatest poet of the 20th century, in any language." Monticello entrance - hard to tell how many stories - peculiar windows give away fact that its two stories-Jefferson maintains architectural hierarchy, announcing that the first floor is more important by giving its window shutters. Likewise, Alberto Blest Gana's Martin Rivas (1862), widely acknowledged as the first Chilean novel, was at once a passionate love story and a national epic about revolution. Post-Boom literature is sometimes characterized by a tendency towards irony and humor, as the narrative of Alfredo Bryce Echenique, and towards the use of popular genres, as in the work of Manuel Puig. Antonyms for neoclassicism. There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Menchú. Emerging voices include Fernando Ampuero, Miguel Gutierrez, Edgardo Rivera Martinez, Jaime Marchán and Manfredo Kempff. Neoclassicism was a revived interest in classical forms and ideas that saturated European and American intellectual thought, fine arts and politics during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Abstract. Neoclassical painter, Charles Willson Peale is from a long line of painters and was father to many talented neoclassical artists Continue reading → Francis Scott Key (1779–1843) Francis Scott K Candidates for the prize include: Ricardo Piglia (Argentina), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Marjorie Agosin (Chile), Eduardo Galeano (Uruguay), Homero Aridjis (Mexico), Luis Fernando Verissimo (Brazil), Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Jorge Amado (Brazil), Ernesto Sábato (Argentina), Carlos Drummond de Andrade (Brazil), and Pablo Neruda (Chile). These prominent women writers discussed the hypocrisy of the dominant class and institutions that existed in their nascent nations and criticized the corruption of the government. Neoclassicism is the 18th and 19th century movement that developed in Europe as a reaction to the excesses of Baroque and Rococo. This article analyzes the nature of micro-entrepreneurship in Argentina and relates it to the empirical evidence available for other Latin American countries. Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages, particularly in Spanish, Portuguese, and the indigenous languages of the Americas as well as literature of the United States written in the Spanish language. What was Neoclassicism and the Neoclassical style? Neoclassicism in America. 2. Verso. These souvenirs made their way across the continent, into North America, and through Latin America in the 19th century, furthering the expansion. The Spanish language author who has had most impact in United States has been Roberto Bolaño. Latin American countries have long exhibited low levels of saving rates when compared to other countries in relatively similar stages of economic development (e.g., Asian economies). From 1960 to 1967, some of the major seminal works of the boom were published and before long became widely noticed, admired, and commented on beyond Latin America itself. [14] In Peru, Cesar Moro and Emilio Adolfo Westphalen developed Surrealism in the Andes region.[15]. [12] Masters of the prose poem include Jorge Luis Borges ("Everything and Nothing"), Pablo Neruda (Passions and Impressions), Octavio Paz (Aguila o Sol?/Eagle or Sun? After Modernismo several lesser known, short-lived poetry movements emerged in Latin America. Mestizos and natives also contributed to the body of colonial literature. Lexico's first Word of the Year! Index for Baroque and Neoclassical Latin American Humanities (1600-1810) Notes on Baroque Characteristics ; Notes on Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Neoclassical literature is characterized by order, accuracy, and structure. The most important literary prize of the Spanish language is widely considered to be the Cervantes Prize of Spain. Synonyms for neoclassicism in Free Thesaurus. 3. What are synonyms for neoclassicism? Buenos Aires, Argentina. American neoclassicism was at first a channel of English antiquarianism. Another key contribution that helped fuel the rise of Neoclassicism was the work of German philosopher and archaeologist Johann … The figure of Jorge Luis Borges, though not a Boom author per se, was extremely influential for the Boom generation. Some works anticipated an end to the prosperity that was occurring, and even predicted old problems would resurface in the near future. Mexican writer and poet Octavio Paz is unique among Latin American writers in having won the Nobel Prize, the Neustadt Prize, and the Cervantes Prize. The Latin American authors who have won the most prestigious literary award in the world, the Nobel Prize for Literature, are: Gabriela Mistral (Chile, 1945), Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala, 1967), Pablo Neruda (Chile, 1971), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia, 1982), Octavio Paz (Mexico, 1990), and Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru, 2010). Saving Rates in Latin America: A Neoclassical Perspective. The neoclassical growth model developed in the 1950s by Solow (1956) and Swan is the starting point for almost all analyses of growth and for any attempt to understand Their works foreshadowed the events to come in the future of Latin America, with the 1970s and 1980s dictatorships, economic turmoil, and Dirty Wars. The neoclassical building style flourished throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, notably in continental Europe, Britain, and the United States as well as Latin America. Neo. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. In music, the term refers to a return by composers of the early 20th century to the forms and styles of the 17th and 18th centuries, as a reaction against 19th-century romanticism. Neoclassicism: translation A European style of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The 19th century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer's words),[1] novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focused on the role and rights of the indigenous or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism", pioneered in Latin America by Esteban Echeverría [2] who was influenced by the Parisian romantics while he lived there from 1825-1930. The Neustadt International Prize for Literature, perhaps the most important international literary award after the Nobel Prize, counts several Latin American authors among its recipients; they include: Claribel Alegría (Nicaragua), Álvaro Mutis (Colombia), João Cabral de Melo Neto (Brazil), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia). There is a vibrant tradition of prose poetry in 20th century Latin America; the prose poem becomes a prevalent format for lyrical philosophical inquiry and sensual sentiments of the region's poets. Château de Bagatelle from Paris, a small Neoclassical château Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the Neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France. Latin America Saving rate Motivated by this fact, this paper examines the time path of the saving rates between 1970 and 2010 in three Latin American countries –Chile, Colombia, and Mexico– through the lens of the neoclassical growth model. Saving Rates in Latin America: A Neoclassical Perspective. It's here! Other important works of 19th century Latin American literature include regional classics, such as José Hernández's epic poem Martín Fierro (1872). PLAY. If you read Borges frequently and closely, you become something of a Borgesian, because to read him is to activate an awareness of literature in which he has gone farther than anybody else." Latin American writers sought a Latin American identity, and this would later be closely tied with the Modernismo literary movement. Delmira Agustini, one of the female figures of modernismo, wrote poetry that both utilized typical modernist images (such as swans) and adapted them with feminist messages and erotic themes, as critic Sylvia Molloy describes.[10]. In Russia, Catherine the Great (1762-96) transformed St. Petersburg into a great European capital in large part by her ambitious embrace of building in the neoclassical style. The style also spread to colonial Latin America. Does English Have More Words Than Any Other Language? It focuses on whether the sector resembles the neoclassical view, characterized by the risk-taking nature of the entrepreneurial activity, or if it is a precarious form of employment of last resort. 1915. 80, Summer 2017 This catch-all term has been used to characterise the rise of left or LOC regimes across the continent. Synonyms for neoclassicism in Free Thesaurus. STUDY. Notes Neoclassicism in Latin America. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2019, Andrés Fernández and others published Saving Rates in Latin America: A Neoclassical Perspective | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate What is Neoclassicism? From the very moment when Europeans encountered the New World, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience, such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. As an aesthetic and artistic style neoclassicism originated in Rome in the mid 18th century, combining a reaction against the late baroque and rococo with a new interest in antiquity. The neoclassical building style flourished throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, notably in continental Europe, Britain, and the United States as well as Latin America. Often, these wide macro-economic uctuations have been observed in the data in combination with sizeable swings in capital ows. Latin American countries have long exhibited low levels of saving rates when compared to other countries in relatively similar stages of economic development (e.g., Asian economies). Darío also worked to highlight the threat of American imperialism, which can be seen in his poem To Roosevelt, as well as his other works Cake-Walk: El Baile de Moda. The only … Following the excavations at the buried city of Pompeii, Winckelmann published Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture (1750) and Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums orHistory of Ancient A… Boom works often tended not to focus on social and local issues, but rather on universal and at times metaphysical themes. Authors crossed traditional boundaries, experimented with language, and often mixed different styles of writing in their works. The development of archaeology was crucial in the emergence of Neoclassical architecture. Many of his works were published in La Revista Moderna de Mexico, a modernist magazine of the time.[11]. Other important figures include the Argentine César Aira, the Peruvian-Mexican Mario Bellatin or the Colombian Fernando Vallejo, whose La virgen de los sicarios depicted the violence in Medellín under the influence of the drug trade. [18], Among the novelists, perhaps the most prominent author to emerge from Latin America in the 20th century is Gabriel García Márquez. The literary movements of the nineteenth century in Latin America range from Neoclassicism at the beginning of the century to Romanticism in the middle of the century, to Realism and Naturalism in the final third of the century, and finally to the invention of Modernismo, a distinctly Latin American literary movement, at the end of the nineteenth century. STUDY. The movement sought to return to the classical beauty and magnificence of the Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. Boom writers ventured outside traditional narrative structures, embracing non-linearity and experimental narration. Daros Latin America External link was created as the family business expanded its presence in the subcontinent, but separately from the main collection, and … After World War II, Latin America enjoyed increasing economic prosperity, and a new-found confidence also gave rise to a literary boom. Classical. Other important novelists of the period include the Chilean José Donoso, the Guatemalan Augusto Monterroso and the Cuban Guillermo Cabrera Infante. This study focuses on external shocks Writers often followed and innovated popular literary movements (such as Romanticism, Realism, and Naturalism), but many were also exploring ideas such as nationalism and independence. Built between 1785 and 1787 and originally intended as the Gabinete de Historia Natural (The Natural History Museum), the building was converted into the Museum El Prado in 1814. It was a particularly popular style for important government buildings, with architects attempting to pattern the young nation after imperial Rome. Notes and Chronology on Aleijadinho . Construction began on this theater in 1855, under the guidance of the outstanding architect Jacobo Gálvez, who was just 34 years of age at the time. In South America, neoclassicism was of particular importance in Argentina, where it differed from its European model in that it did not seek to redress recent stylistic upheavals which … Leaders of the vanguard whose poetry express love, romance, and a commitment to left leaning regional politics are Cesar Vallejo (Peru) and Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda (Chile). In the 1920s Mexico, the Stridentism and los Contemporáneos represented the influx of avant-garde movements, while the Mexican Revolution inspired novels such as Mariano Azuela's Los de abajo, a committed work of social realism and the revolution and its aftermath would continue to be a point of reference for Mexican literature for many decades. This was the first Latin American poetry movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer as much of an issue and authors sought to establish Latin American connections. The essays collected here examine different dimensions of neo-classical visual culture in Latin America during the period, exploring how classicism was imposed, promoted, adapted, and contested in various social, political, economic, cultural, and temporal situations. A prime example of this sort of message is found in Martí's Our America, published in 1892. Neoclassical art was common across many parts of Europe, particularly in architecture. Neoclassical architecture, which began in the mid 18th century, looks to the classical past of the Graeco-Roman era, the Renaissance, and classicized Baroque to convey a new era based on Enlightenment principles. David and Canova are examples of neoclassicists. Latin American authors were inspired by North American and European authors such as William Faulkner, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf, by the legendary Spanish poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca as well as by each other's works; many of the authors knew one another, which led to a mutual crossbreeding of styles. Neoclassicism In the 18th century the monarchies had imposed Neoclassicism on their main Latin American colonies in order to connect them to Europe and support the ruling establishment. Plinio Apuleyo Mendoza (1 March 1983). mass noun The revival of a classical style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music. 13 Altmetric. In 1900 the Uruguayan José Enrique Rodó wrote what became read as a manifesto for the region's cultural awakening, Ariel. Another important international literary award is the Jerusalem Prize; its recipients include: Marcos Aguinis (Argentina), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina). Romanticism was then taken up by other prominent literary figures, for which see, the Argentine Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo (1845). Although some of our scholars have appreciated the American contribution to the study of international relations (e.g. Latin American authors who have won this prestigious award include: José Emilio Pacheco (Mexico), Juan Gelman (Argentina), Nicanor Parra (Chile), Sergio Pitol (Mexico), Gonzalo Rojas (Chile), Álvaro Mutis (Colombia), Jorge Edwards (Chile), Guillermo Cabrera Infante (Cuba), Mario Vargas Llosa (Perú), Dulce María Loynaz (Cuba), Adolfo Bioy Casares (Argentina), Augusto Roa Bastos (Paraguay), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Juan Carlos Onetti (Uruguay), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina) and Alejo Carpentier (Cuba). Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of “classicism,” namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. Facade of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane - 1665 - 1676 - By Francesco Borromini - Baroque in Italy. Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Though the literary boom occurred while Latin America was having commercial success, the works of this period tended to move away from the positives of the modernization that was underway. Neoclassicism was a revival of Greek and Roman forms and ideas that emerged in late 18th century Europe and North America. Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the h century and beyond—a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals —although from the late h century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles. In the United States, Neoclassical architecture thrived throughout the 19th century and beyond. In the United States Neoclassicism continued to flourish throughout the 19th century, as many architects looked to make the analogy between the young country and imperial Rome when designing major government buildings. Savings accounts- Government-Latin America. It is not to be confused with, Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism, and Emerging Literary Trends, Modernismo, the Vanguards, and Boom precursors, Latin American Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature, Chronology: Late 19th century-present day, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, The Slaughteryard (2010), by Esteban Echeverría, Norman Thomas di Giovanni and Susan Ashe, trans by Juan María Gutiérrez, (HarperCollins Publishers: London). Latin America has failed to catch-up in wealth to the level of the United States while other countries at similar or even lower stages of development have been successful. p. 49. Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism and Colonial Latin America. Home; About; The Peale Family. Resistance against colonialism, a trend that emerged earlier in the nineteenth century, was also extremely important in modernismo. At the same time, Roberto Arlt offered a very different style, closer to mass culture and popular literature, reflecting the urbanization and European immigration that was shaping the Southern Cone. Notes and Chronology on Aleijadinho . Notes on Precursors to Independence Liberators . The birth of Neoclassical art was brought on mainly by a series of archaeological discoveries during the excavation of Pompeii and Herculaneum during the 18th century. In a mock diary by post-modernist Giannina Braschi the Narrator of the Latin American Boom is shot by a Macy's make-up artist who accuses the Boom of capitalizing on her solitude. Neoclassicism was a transatlantic phenomenon. An increase in women's education and writing brought some women writers to the forefront, including the Cuban Romantic author Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda with the novel Sab (1841), a romantic novel offering subtle critique of slavery and the treatment of women in Cuba, the Peruvian Naturalist author Clorinda Matto de Turner who wrote what is considered one of the most important novels of "indigenismo" in the 19th century: Aves sin nido (1889), and the Argentinian Romantic writer Juana Manuela Gorriti (1818-1892), who penned a variety of novels and short stories, such as La hija del mashorquero (1860) and directed a literary circle in Peru. Borges opined that it was "the Don Quixote of Latin America." Latin American literature produced since 2000 spans a wide realm of schools and styles. Andrés Fernández 1, Ayşe İmrohoroğlu 2 & Cesar E. Tamayo 3 IMF Economic Review volume 67, pages 791 – 823 (2019)Cite this article. 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