In an effort to curb the flow, the federal government issued a decree in June stating that Nigerian currency exported from Nigeria (including the rebel held Eastern Region) after 21 August 1967, would not be redeemed by the Nigerian Government. It goes to prove the point: Biafra is really here to stay. Riots, which broke out in several parts of the country, thus found Ibos as the targets of violence. Remainders are available only for the second series (with the apparent exception of the 10-shilling note which has not been positively recorded), and can be recognised by the lack of serial numbers – which are to be found (if present) in the top right and bottom left on the front of the notes. – Niven, Rex (1970) The War of Nigerian Unity 1967-1970, Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Ltd, Lagos. [29], The FMG attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967. [24], In January 1967, the military leaders Gowon, Chukwuemeka Ojukwu and senior police officials of each region met in Aburi, Ghana and agreed on a less centralized union of regions. However Enugu was one of the first casualties of the war, and the administrative centre of Biafra was moved to several locations (including Aba, Umuahia and Orlu) during the course of the war. The official exchange rate at the beginning of 1968 was one Nigerian pound to one pound three shillings and four pence sterling – making the Rothschild offer approximately half its real value.) The Biafrans, on the other hand, claimed that by the end of January 1968 they had collected more than £53 million. [64][65] Self-determination is not a crime in Nigerian law. But, they have zero influence over the activities of Biafrans overseas; these Biafrans put on a successful worldwide demonstration (WWD) at the close of the month of May 2005 during which they sensitized the rest of the world--from Canada to South Africa, Austria to Gabon, and from Ireland to Ukraine to the case for Biafra, pressing for the support of self-determination as a natural and moral right, and as a right ratified by UN Charter. In the latter stages, a Southern FMG offensive managed to break through the fierce resistance.[24]. [33] Its legal system was based on the English Common Law. 8 September 2016. When Nigeria announced the introduction of their new note issue was to be on 3 January 1968, the Biafrans were still collecting Nigerian notes. Four days later, Ojukwu unilaterally declared the independence of the Republic of Biafra, citing the Easterners killed in the post-coup violence as reasons for the declaration of independence. Biafra is a foreign name, whereas the name of Nigeria originated from the River Niger traces the origin of the name 'Biafra' which claimed has no origin in the Igbo language. Many others have been injured and/or arrested. a heinous action. Therefore, based on what we know today and the realities of our collective experiences the map of the new Biafra must include all the autochthonous and contiguous geography of … Biafra attempted to finance the war through foreign exchange. When many Ibos decided to forsake their homes and businesses, and flee the violence in various parts of Nigeria to return to their homelands, it was Lieut.-Col. Ojukwu who advised them to return to their homes and businesses, assuring them that peace would be returned under the new government. These are boys who want to take people unawares and get money out of people in the name of Biafra. [16], In 1960, Nigeria became independent of the United Kingdom. The new currency went public on 28 January 1968. On 26 May the Eastern Region voted to secede from Nigeria. Brands-Gloria Mary. It is not known whether the sets were sold at the behest of the Biafrans, or by their agents in an effort to recoup unpaid costs. Nigeria was for many years a British colony, but in 1960 it became an independent Federation of three regions – Northern, Western, and Eastern. Whatev! We had to arrange and conclude the exercise in a hurry. According to documents illustrated in the Daily Times (Lagos) on 9 August 1967, the mineral rights – for columbite ore, uranium, coal, tin concentrates, natural oil, and gold ore – were ceded to the ‘Rot(h)schild Bros Bank’ for a period of ten years. Other nations, which did not give official recognition but provided support and assistance to Biafra, included France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa, and Vatican City. Intermittent reports continued to appear in the international press in late 1967 and early 1968 of foreign nationals attempting to smuggle Nigerian currency into Nigeria. 3 of 1967’ (also known as the ‘Bank of Biafra Decree, 1967’). [60][61] The Nigerian Government, through its broadcasting regulators, the Broadcasting Organisation of Nigerian and Nigerian Communications Commission, has sought to clamp down on Radio Biafra with limited success. When the Nigerian government announced that the old currency would no longer be legal tender after 22 January 1968, there were frantic efforts by the Biafrans to exchange their holdings. [2] After Biafra's declaration of independence from Nigeria, Nigeria declared war on the nascent state, defeating them in the Nigerian Civil War and reuniting the two states. On the back of the 5-shilling note is a picture of four Ibo girls, and surrounding the value of the note to the left is a ‘manilla’. "BIAFRA: IPOB Takes Nnamdi Kanu's Case to ECOWAS Court." Because of the early support by Portugal and the later connection with ‘Markpress’, one could conjecture that the first series was printed in Portugal and the second in Switzerland. [38], The international humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières originated in response to the suffering in Biafra. Impacts vary with age of exposure. 3 of 1967". [67] A report by Amnesty International between August 2015 and August 2016, at least 150 pro-Biafran activists overall were killed by Nigerian security forces, with 60 people shot in a period of two days in connection with events marking Biafran Remembrance Day. The sale of undelivered notes included remainders as well as notes in issued form. After the announcement, tons of Nigerian bank notes were transported in an effort to acquire foreign exchange. Following the end of the war, federal sources claimed that they had found evidence of the Biafrans asking the relief agencies to pay landing fees (in foreign exchange), for the use of their air-strips. There were of course many stories of enterprising Nigerians who were buying the Biafran holdings in Europe at a discounted rate, and shipping them back to Nigeria where their full value could be obtained. It was headquartered in Kidney Island, Port Harcourt, and commanded by Winifred Anuku. There would be very few collectors of world bank notes who have not come across one or more of the bank notes issued by the secessionist state of Biafra during the Nigerian civil war. I am worried by the news that the Federal Government, because of shortage of funds for its services, has authorised the printing of a large quantity of unbacked notes for circulation. [24][30] In September 1968, the federal army planned what Gowon described as the "final offensive". For mother and child health, the largest impacts stem from adolescent exposure. [10][69], Another group is the Biafra Nations Youth League (BNYL), which has its members and followers mostly in the Niger Delta and Bakassi Peninsula, the group is led by Princewill Chimezie Richard (aka. Pronunciation of Biafra with 2 audio pronunciations, 8 translations, 13 sentences and more for Biafra. However in the case of the individual no more than £10 of the £30 could be made up with Biafran notes and in the case of the commercial enterprises the limit was £100. Money was also being raised from outside the republic. Money rituals within 37mins from the moment you called. When a foreign journalist, Michael Mok of ‘Life’ magazine, asked a nun working with the Biafrans whether he could make a cash donation to help the starving children, he was told that cash would be useless, as there was nothing left to buy in Biafra. Meanwhile, the popularity of the originally planned Sovereign National Conference (SNC) of Ethnic Nations living in Nigeria (which Obasanjo tried now to preempt after initially and all along vigorously and unsuccessfully opposing) is rising. The Nigerian Civil War (also known as the Biafran War and the Nigerian-Biafran War) was a civil war in Nigeria fought between the government of Nigeria headed by General Yakubu Gowon and the secessionist state of Biafra led by late Lt. At the height of the war in 1969, 12,000 people a day starved to death in Biafra. [27] The large amount of oil in the region also created conflict, as oil was already becoming a major component of the Nigerian economy. Each prefix has ten million numbers, there fore the number of notes prepared for this issue are estimated to be: 5s. However, English was used as the official language. Thus, only six digits are used and this means that only one million notes were prepared for each prefix, and not the ten million that would be initially supposed. While the Igbo people of the current Nigerian state of Delta were not included in Biafra as per Ojukwu's decree founding Biafra, Igbos in Delta (Anioma) did fight on the Biafran side. The 1-pound note is again dominated on the back by the coat of arms, but lacks the ‘Alo’ (spear) of the first issue. [11], Early modern maps of Africa from the 15th to the 19th centuries, drawn from accounts written by explorers and travellers, show references to Biafra, Biafara,[12][13] and Biafares. After Nigeria announced its currency would no longer be legal tender (to make way for a new currency), this effort increased. [41] In 1968 the Swedish pilot Carl Gustaf von Rosen suggested the MiniCOIN project to General Ojukwu. flying from Lisbon when he dumped the cargo of Biafran notes at sea. In 1945 an ethnic riot[18] flared up in Jos in which Hausa-Fulani people targeted Igbo people and left many dead and wounded. of over 40% their face value. These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organisation was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritise the welfare of victims. This, of course, has not escaped the watchful eyes of the US Intelligence which comes out with an Intelligence Report on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)  predicting that within the next 15 years, Nigeria will totally collapse. Because of the lack of official support, the Biafrans manufactured many of their weapons locally. [10] In an Intersociety study it was found that Nigerian security forces also extorted approximately $100 million per year from illegal roadblocks and other methods from Igboland - a cultural sub-region of Biafra in what is now southern Nigeria, causing greater mistrust of the Igbo citizenry towards the Nigerian security forces. [46], In 2010, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of Nigeria at Nsukka showed that Igbos born in Biafra during the years of the famine were of higher risk of suffering from obesity, hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism compared to controls born a short period after the famine had ended in the early 1970s. To the left! In addition to the notes that circulated in Biafra, and those which were dumped into the sea (first series), there were also thousands of undelivered notes that survived the war. the 5-shilling note repeats ‘Bank of Biafra Five Shillings’. The blockades imposed on Biafra by Nigeria and her allies started to take their toll, and it would seem that the loss of the of bank notes through Hank Wharton’s ‘treachery’ was one of the more telling blows. During the war Biafra reported terrific atrocities by the Nigerians against her people, and reports of starvation which cost hundreds of thousands of Biafran lives became widespread. Two days earlier an aeroplane carrying £7 million of Nigerian currency was seized at Lomé in Togo. ), 1968 – January 16 (17:7); May 2 (3:7); September 8 (Section 2, 40:5). [70] [71] [72] Many reports has it that BNYL is linked to the Southern Cameroons separatists, although the group confirms this, it denies involvements in violent activities in the region. [Accessed 13 Oct. 2016] Vanguard. Also on the back of the 5-pound note is a picture of a woman weaving on a hand loom. The difference being that the Eastern Region’s arms had supporters of a leopard (on the left) and a man carrying a spear – an ‘Alo’ – (on the right), whereas the Biafran arms had two leopards supporting the shield. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}6°27′N 7°30′E / 6.450°N 7.500°E / 6.450; 7.500. War-exposed men marry later and have fewer children. By far the most important strategy of the Biafrans in their quest for foreign exchange, was the conversion of their holdings of Nigerian currency. – Keesing’s Publications Limited Keesing’s Contemporary Archives – Volume No.XVI 1967-1968 – London. He claimed that pro-Biafra activist, Nnamdi Kanu, and members of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) are ignorant about the Igbo … The National Political Reform Conference arranged, funded (illegally) and teleguided by Obasanjo himself, is about to wind up,  pretending that it has been successful, although the fragmentation of interests along ethnic and regional lines is the most visible outcome--not surprisingly. [17][24][26] It is believed this was one of the major factors that sparked the war. Nigeria's initial efforts were unsuccessful; the Biafrans successfully launched their own offensive, occupying areas in the mid-Western Region in August 1967. It is believed that the Northern Region undertook the coup with the main aim of secession, however British diplomats in Lagos (the Nigerian capital) convinced the new leaders that they should seek unity under ‘one Nigeria’. 30. While not known for certain how many notes were produced for circulation in Biafra, a reasonable estimate can be made by extrapolating the number of notes prepared for each known serial number prefix. That has been our name for centuries, given to us by our ancestors, and we are very happy with it. The 1968 Biafran bank note issue was not only an emergency issue, it also faced the trials and tribulations of the country it was serving – many of the notes not making it to Biafra. ... Money Heist cast actual and screen name-John Dennis G.Thomas. For the first series, there are only two known serial number prefixes, while for the second series there are four prefixes. The name given to the new state was ‘The Republic of Biafra’, the republic taking its name from the Bight of Biafra, on which it had its coast. Bite is like a bay beach, the river mouth, the ocean mouth of Biafra. The Biafran conflict is well documented, with many works addressing the struggle from both sides. Security printers usually use paper, particularly paper with high linen and cotton content, which is not treated in such a manner.). Can't even feed my family. The cases were due to be loaded on a flight to Accra in Ghana. The two letter serial number were followed by a seven digit number. Kudos for calling it … It was discussed that Biafra should receive 57.7 percent of the royalties and the rest be put aside until there was a political settlement. The Republic of Biafra was a unitary republic administered under emergency measures. My name is Mr Franchise from Edo state Benin around upper mission road . It is not known exactly when these notes were introduced, but it was probably around February 1969, as Gen. Ojukwu announced the following in a speech to the Consultative Assembly and Council of Chiefs and Elders on 10 February: ‘I am happy to announce to you that we have now been able to produce real Biafran currency of the highest quality. ), It is interesting that such an attempt has been made to produce this quasi-security device, as another very simple security device is absent – that of non-fluorescing paper. Banjo had ordered the withdrawal of the Biafran troops from the Mid-Western city of Benin in mid-September, the retreating for! It is early June 2005. The Republic of Biafra comprised over 29,848 square miles (77,310 km2) of land,[1] with terrestrial borders shared with Nigeria to the north and west, and with Cameroon to the east. Apparently the name “Biafra” or “Biafara” was picked again because the former Premiere of Nigeria’s then Eastern region, Odumegwu Ojukwu had chosen the “Biafra” name for the territory he wished to preside over; however there is no evidence that Ojukwu selected that name because he believed it was the name of his ancestral home. [37] A special guerrilla unit, the Biafran Organization of Freedom Fighters, was established, designed to emulate the insurrectionist guerilla forces of the Viet Cong in the American - Vietnamese War, targeting Nigerian Federal Army supply lines and forcing them to shift forces to internal security efforts. So there was a nation called Biafra that had that ocean mouth. War exposure of mothers (but not fathers) has adverse impacts on child growth, survival, and education. June 21 2020 | Radio Biafra B ack in the days in high school, we students hardly concentrate on related borrowed culture of adopting a new course like borrowing of courses like anthropology and geography; students always gave one excuse or the other why the course wasn’t necessary. Wharton was subsequently fired and a new supply route established. [54], On 29 May 2000, the Lagos Guardian newspaper reported that the now ex-president Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement of the dismissal of all military persons, soldiers and officers, who fought for the breakaway Republic of Biafra during Nigeria's 1967–1970 civil war. It appears that the authorities in Lagos would not release the new Nigerian bank notes in those areas of the Eastern Region which had been liberated from the Biafran ‘rebels’, for fear that a bank full off the new notes may be captured in a counter-offensive. – The Times newspaper – London, United Kingdom, (The references in brackets refer to the page number and column location of the relevant article. The known prefixes and the number of notes issued is summarized as follows: 5s. With the help of other French doctors, Kouchner put Biafra in the media spotlight and called for an international response to the situation. The war which lasted for 30 months took the lives of more … The Northerners were at odds with this agreement that was known as the Aburi Accords; Obafemi Awolowo, the leader of the Western Region warned that if the Eastern Region seceded, the Western Region would also, which persuaded the northerners. Another external source of revenue that was rumoured to have come to the Biafrans, was an advance of six million pounds against the promise of mineral rights. Of the various symbols used in the design of the Biafran bank notes (both issues), several were very important. The currency of Biafra had been the Nigerian pound until the Bank of Biafra started printing out its own notes, the Biafran pound. – Waugh, Auberon & Cronje, Suzanne (1969) Biafra – Britain’s Shame, Michael Joseph, London. [51] It has two arms of government, the Biafra Government in Exile and the Biafra Shadow Government. Ethnic tension had simmered in Nigeria during discussions of independence, but in the mid-twentieth century, ethnic and religious riots began to occur. (These were also the colours of the Biafran flag – three horizontal bars of red, black, and green, with the rising sun in the centre of the black band). It is believed that the named was culled from the Bight of Biafra which is the name of the Atlantic bay to it’s south. ether they were brought back to Lagos by Nigerian soldiers, or by speculators in Nigerian currency who may have bought them at a discount from the Biafrans. Certain that no great force would be required to subdue the rebel government, the Nigerians prepared for what they referred to as a ‘police action’. – Taken from their coat of arms, the rising sun became the dominant symbol of Biafra. To make matters worse, one Biafran pound is worth 280 Naira! Beresiner and Narbeth (in The Story of Paper Money) claim that the notes were printed in Portugal and Switzerland, and this seems to be a reasonable proposition. The back of the 5-shilling note is very similar to the first issue, with the picture of the four Ibo girls and the manilla being used in the same manner. [59], MASSOB leader Chief Ralph Uwazuruike established Radio Biafra in the United Kingdom in 2009, with Nnamdi Kanu as his radio director; later Kanu was said to have been dismissed from MASSOB because of accusations of supporting violence. [75] [76] [77], The Incorporated Trustees of Bilie Human Rights Initiative, representing the Indigenous People of Biafra, have filed a lawsuit against the Federal Government of Nigeria and Attorney General of the Federation, seeking the actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra by legal means. Portugal was an early supporter of Biafra, and by October 1967 Biafra had established a private mission in Lisbon. It appeared on their flag, their coins and bank notes, on military insignia, and it gave rise to the title of their national anthem, Land of the Rising Sun. When the federal government offered to appease those in the east, their efforts were rejected, and although a lot of effort was made in trying to bring about a reconciliation, it appeared that those in the east were not willing to come to a compromise. The war continued for two and a half years, with Biafra finally capitulating on 15 January 1970. Widespread reports of fraud tarnished the election's legitimacy. This possibility is further enhanced by the knowledge that the Biafran postage stamps were printed by the Portuguese State Security Printers in Lisbon. As with many other new African states, the borders of the country did not reflect earlier ethnic, cultural, religious, or political boundaries. The front of each note has a coloured pattern (around the outside of the central design) which contains very small print repeating the words ‘Bank of Biafra’ followed by the denomination of the note – e.g. In September 1966, approximately 30,000 Igbo were killed in the north, and some Northerners were killed in backlashes in eastern cities. The back of the 10-shilling note uses the manilla in the same manner as the 5-shilling note (enclosing the value of the note in a white disc) and has a picture of an oil refinery – possibly the one at Port Harcourt. [7] After the surrender of Biafra, some Igbos who had fled the conflict returned to their properties but were unable to claim them back from new occupants. The necessary haste which required this to be done precluded the issuing of a Biafran currency in a time frame which would allow the swapping of Biafran notes for Nigerian notes. Under the decree, the central office of the Bank of Biafra was to be in Enugu, which was the capital of the Republic. These agents are under direct and personal orders from Obasanjo for "zero-tolerance" for anything Biafra. [68] The Nigerian military killed at least 17 unarmed Biafrans in the city of Onitsha prior to a march on 30 May 2016 commemorating the 49th anniversary of Biafra's 1967 declaration of independence. This desperate method of raising foreign exchange supposedly lasted only a brief period of time. [36] There was no official support for the Biafran Army by any other nation throughout the war, although arms were clandestinely acquired. Three major rivers flow from Biafra into the Gulf of Guinea: the Imo River, the Cross River and the Niger River.[31]. Constructed from copper bars they form an incomplete circle (or oval) having lobes at the ends and are often described as bracelets or armlets. 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