Weddell Seals live year round in the frigid waters of the Southern Ocean. It thus demands different questions and answers than the global common Antarctica with its one overarching treaty system and the limited … One of the biggest differences between the poles has to do with people that reside there. If fishing on a massive scale expands to the Ross Sea, the dynamic balance of this fragile ecosystem could fall apart. Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. This list covers everything, from classics like Animales Polares En Peligro =: Polar Animals in Danger to popular sellers like The Golden Compass to some of our favorite hidden gems like Tacky the Penguin. Weddell seals are very vocal and have a large repertoire of sounds. All but one or two percent of Antarctic land is covered by glaciers, some of which are more than 15,000 feet (4,700 meters) thick. "The ocean is eating up our land," says Esther Iyatunguk. Polar bears, who rely on sea ice to reach seals for their winter meals, will have less time to reach their food source as the ice declines and breaks up earlier in the season. The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. Great description; It is a good idea to put images to complement the description. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 . Antarctica is covered by ice throughout the year, less than 5% of Antarctica is free of ice. The Antarctic region has no trees too. It is important to note that Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas whereas the Arctic is an ocean with the masses of other lands in the circle. Melting ice isn't the only threat confronting the polar ocean. This is especially important now that humans are emitting carbon dioxide at an unprecedented rate (see Threats to the Poles section). There are roughly 172,000 of them swimming in the Arctic today. Though both are snow filled areas, there is a difference between Arctic and Antarctic. Smaller populations live off the eastern coast of Greenland as well. Key to survival is the skill with which they hunt arctic marine animals like seals and whales. Large animals, like penguins, whales, and seals all feast on the krill. The indigenous people of the region encircling the North Pole are known by many names—Inuit, Eskimo, Kalaadit. Global temperatures have increased since the 1800s, and sea ice has been decreasing in extent and thickness. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. But researchers have also found that the ice crystals don’t go away during the warmer summer months—one of the implications of living below the ice. A summertime channel carries melted ice to the sea. The Arctic Studies Center seeks to bring its researchers together with community scholars in the collaborative exploration of the cultural heritage represented in these impressive collections. When ice sheets grow and move out over the ocean they form ice shelves. Subsistence hunting of bowhead whales formed the basis for Iñupiaq social and spiritual life. It is interesting to note that the Arctic region was found long before the Antarctic region was found. Arctic and Antarctic - A Territory of Sustainable Development, Harmony of Nature and Human; Presentation of the Program of the Chairmanship of Russia in the Arctic Council in 2021-2023. Nowadays, scientists have impermanent camps in Antarctic. All orcas are currently considered to be the same species, although there is some thought that they might be different species among the pods in Antarctica, or at least subspecies (pdf). Both male and female walruses have strong long tusks that they use to help pull themselves out of the water. This protein is also found in a group of more than 120 fish that live in the Southern Ocean. The Arctic is an ocean, covered by a thin layer of perennial sea ice and surrounded by land. Orcas travel in pods of up to 40 related individuals. This is the reason why the Antarctic region is considered colder and windier than the Arctic region. The Ross Sea, a 1.9 million square mile (3.6 million square km) stretch of ocean off the coast of Antarctica, has been nicknamed “The Last Ocean.” In 2008, researchers mapped out human impacts on the ocean globally and this small area of the Southern Ocean proved to be the most pristine piece of the ocean left on Earth. Imagine it being 40 degrees below zero (Fahrenheit and Celsius are equal at this temperature!) In the Southern Ocean, Antarctic krill swim in dense schools of 20,000 animals per cubic yard (540,000 cubic feet). That might not seem like much, but keep in mind it includes all the saltwater in the oceans too. Without sea ice, hunting has become significantly harder. The people that live here are mostly scientists and technicians engaged in research. Early Eskimos, known as Groswater Dorset, occupied the Gulf of St. Lawrence about 2,500 years ago. Also, while the Antarctic region is covered with snow all thorough the year, the Arctic lands generally have a summer, free from ice and snow. They live and travel in pods that range in size from a few narwhals to several hundred individuals, but in the summertime, the congregations can be in the thousands. Antarctic sea ice extent is currently 13 th lowest on record; as is normal, there are regions of both below- and above-average sea ice extent. The sun-fed plankton are also important for the indigenous peoples of the Arctic who get food and clothing both from the sea (walrus, narwhals, beluga, other whales, polar bear, and fish) and the land (caribou, reindeer and musk-ox). Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. Exactly how climate change will affect the Arctic is hard to predict. Right now, residents of Shishmaref are working with the U.S. Government to relocate the entire village at a cost of $180 million. When sleeping and resting, Weddell seals may remain in the same spot for hours, melting a hollow in the ice underneath them with their own body heat. The glaciers, icebergs, ice sheets, and permanent areas of snow in the polar regions (the Arctic and Antarctica) comprise 1.7% of the total water on the planet. In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. Some areas of the Arctic Ocean, like the Barent Sea north of Scandinavia, are warming so quickly that they are being taken over by Atlantic waters. Walruses forage on the seafloor, diving to depths up to 180 meters (590 feet) for clams, cockles, and mussels. When uneaten organisms die, they sink to the seafloor, feeding fish, seastars, soft corals, and other organisms in deeper water. In 2011 a BBC crew filmed a never-before-seen phenomenon of the salt water sinking below newly formed ice and the water around it slowly freezing. This ivory sculpture from Point Barrow, Alaska, represents Kikámigo, a guardian spirit, holding a whale in each hand. • On the other hand, the Arctic is an ocean with the masses of other lands in the circle. They have hollow guard hairs that keep fur from matting when it gets wet. The Arctic is not as cold as the Antarctic for two main reasons, firstly the effect of the sea that doesn't fall below -2°C which means that the whole of the arctic polar region and coastal regions are kept relatively warm even though the sea is covered by ice. The Arctic region has towns and other living places. During this bright period, Arctic algae and phytoplankton kick into overdrive, using photosynthesis to use the 24-hour sunlight to make food. A thick layer of blubber keeps walruses warm in the Arctic. Orcas stay put in their distinctive ecosystems, and there are different characteristics of the groups (or pods) in various locations. That's a journey of about 40,000 km (25,000 miles), often made in less than four months. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. The environments at the poles are some of the harshest on Earth—yet animals have found ways to survive there against the odds. It is true that there are no bears in Antarctica, but the name comes from a Roman version of the Greek word that is antarktike. Then they dig out their prey using the tough edges of their noses, similar to how pigs root around in dirt and grass. Orcas communicate through a wide range of sounds, and each pod has an audio signature that members can recognize from far away. The fish above are backlit by the ice above and easily spotted in silhouette. Male narwhals will sometimes cross their tusks, a behavior called "tusking". Polar bears have two layers of fur, plus a layer of blubber to keep them warm in the coldest weather, and black skin to absorb the heat. But the Arctic region is home to more than 4 million people, many of which are indigenous people, native to the area. “Anti-” is commonly a synonym for the opposite in English as well as in Greek. You could do that if you were a polar bear. Like the Antarctic ice fish, they have an antifreeze protein that keeps their blood flowing. Industrial fishing, started in 1996 by New Zealand and now practiced by a dozen nations, is homing in on Antarctic toothfish and krill in the Ross Sea. On the adjacent land, communities of native peoples have thrived for thousands of years by adapting to life along the edge of the ice. In fact, polar bears are more concerned about overheating than about getting cold. Among the biggest threats to the poles is rapid climate change. It is devoid of towns and living places. Unicorns may be creatures of the imagination, but narwhals are the real deal. They can also use their tusks to break through the ice to create breathing holes. Understanding the function of the tusk is an ongoing area of investigation. Recent sampling efforts and following metagenomics have shed light on the global ocean microbial diversity and function, yet the microbiota of polar regions has not been included in such global analyses. Emperors are the largest of all penguins—about half the height of adult humans. TKSST features smarter, more meaningful content than what's usually served up by YouTube's algorithms, and amplifies the creators … @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean has also become a draw for ecotourists who seek to visit places where humans are far outnumbered by penguins. This quiz couldn’t be more straightforward. The Arctic is a sea of ice surrounded by land and located at the highest latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Today their lands are part of four different nations—the United States, Canada, Denmark (Greenland) and Russia. Since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, the southern polar region has been managed on a collective basis. Arctic Cod can live in water that is cooler than the freezing point of blood. The sea-ice closer to land and attached to the shoreline is called fast ice (short for fastened). This explosion of life supports the entire food web for the whole year—from soft corals on the seafloor to the arctic foxes on the ice. Russia has already staked a claim, using submarines to plant a flag on the Arctic Ocean floor. Esther lives in the Alaskan coastal village of Shishmaref. Arctic and Antarctic differ a lot when it comes to the human activity and animal and plant life existent on them. They take turns moving into the center of the crowd to warm up and then trading places with a penguin on the cold perimeter. In an amazing feat of synchronized swimming, they use a staggered formation so that no krill swims directly in another's wake. A stormy sea lashes the village of Shismaref, Alaska, where the coastline has eroded 30–90 m (100–300 ft) in the past 30 years. Travel to the ends of the earth—literally—and discover the polar ocean basins. Then a film of ice forms, called grease ice, named for its close resemblance to the look of an oil slick on water. Though the Vikings explored parts of the Arctic over a millennium ago, and small numbers of people have been living along the Arctic coast for much longer, scientific knowledge about the region was slow to develop; the large islands of Severnaya Zemlya, just north of the Taymyr Peninsula on the Russian mainland, wer… McMurdo Station is the hub of the U.S. Antarctic Program. The ice has trapped bubbles, salts, and sediments that can help tell the story of how the climate has changed. Another study published in the same year found that the rate of Antarctic ice melt has tripled in the last five years. The Arctic Tern could really be called the Arctic-Antarctic Tern. Polar Bears are dying off. Many northern communities have also observed coastal erosion and watched the permafrost—ground that used to be frozen all year—melting and buckling under their homes and roads. The Arctic region is also characterized by the presence of trees such as Tundra and flowering plants. While the Arctic region has … These pods act like wolf packs - working together to take down prey, including seals and larger whales. Not only Polar bears, other terrestrial animals or land animals such as wolves, foxes, hares, reindeer, lemmings and oxen can also be seen in the Arctic region. Land is being lost, along with animals that provide food for the people living in the Arctic. The famous tusk is actually a specialized tooth that protrudes out of the left lip, and in rare cases, a narwhal can have two. Antarctica means 'no bears are all mythical'. Since 1983, Beijing has been a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty which prohibits new territorial claims, other than the seven original ones. In oxygen-rich Antarctic waters, ice fish can withstand temperatures that would freeze the cells of other fish. Thus, Antarctica means opposite of Arctic land, “Anti-” plus the Arctic which forms a compound word. An ice-free Arctic also opens up possibilities for drilling for oil and gas. Because they are such strong swimmers, polar bears earned the species name of Ursus maritimus—bears of the sea. Antarctica and Greenland lose around 350 billion tons of ice each year from such melting. Because of these massive changes, the whole Arctic Ocean ecosystem will see impacts, from microscopic algae to massive polar bears to the people who call the Arctic home. They use highly sensitive whiskers on their snouts to locate food. Flora. Antarctica is mostly an ice sheet, with the south pole located some 800 miles from the sea. In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. Swimming under the ice they can dive as deep as 700 meters (2296 feet) and attack prey, such as small fish, from below. Diving is one of the narwhal’s special talents. This Webby award-winning video collection exists to help teachers, librarians, and families spark kid wonder and curiosity. Abundance of flora is absent in both Arctic and Antarctic regions. They inhabit the "fast ice"—sea ice that is attached to the shore. The Iñupiaq developed sophisticated survival skills for understanding animal migrations, weather patterns, ocean currents, and more. While details concerning the extent of future impacts of climate change are the subject of debate, the Arctic is experiencing those changes today. The Arctic and the Antarctic show differences in their environment, weather, animal and plant life, human activity, and the like. 66º33′ are the northern and southern latitudinal lines of the Arctic Circle (66º33′ N) and Antarctic Circle (66º33′ S), respectively. ("Perennial" refers to the oldest and thickest sea ice.) During the deepest dives, a narwhal can shut off oxygen flow to unessential organs and instead divert it to where it is needed most. A polar bear and its cub in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Females, young, and immature males live together and adult males live in their own pods. These large marine mammals, who move easily between ice, water and land, are part of the diverse fauna of the Arctic Ocean. Sea ice is by definition made from frozen seawater, which gives it different properties than ice made of freshwater. When salt water becomes ice, some of the salt is left behind in the water, making the water directly below sea ice saltier and denser than most seawater. That way they avoid turbulence. Antarctica is isolated from the rest of the continents by the Circumpolar Current, which swirls clockwise around the landmass. Weddell seals grind their teeth on holes in the ice to keep them open to their comings and goings between ocean and air. Traveling at such depths where there is intense pressure requires a few special adaptations, including a compressible rib cage and streamlined body. These increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are trapping heat and taking a toll on the planet, especially at the poles where the largest increases in temperature will occur. This dense, salty water sinks and travels towards warmer tropical waters along the seafloor, forming part of the ocean’s great circulating “conveyer belt”. Difference Between Longitude and Latitude, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Works Cited and Works Consulted, Difference Between Stereotype and Archetype, Difference Between Imidazolidinyl Urea and Diazolidinyl Urea, Difference Between Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra, Difference Between Borax and Boric Powder, Difference Between Conditional and Constitutive Knockout. More than 11,000 kilometers (6835 miles) separate the Arctic from the Southern Ocean. From 1979 to 2005, sea ice cover declined by about 20 percent. Floes are more prone to converge, or bump into each other, and pile up into thick ridges… Amidst the penguins and the seals, researchers look at everything from ecosystems underwater to ozone holes in the atmosphere. However, nowadays, scientists have impermanent camps in Antarctic. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 Makes you feel tired just thinking about it. Now it's down to just 10 percent and the Arctic may have ice-free summers by the end of the 21st century. Polar bears are threatened by the loss of sea ice in the Arctic. It does not have indigenous people nor have any large land animals. Scientists have discovered that the ratio of thick to thin sea ice is changing. A belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. A narwhal is a toothed whale and is closely related to dolphins, porpoises, and orcas. When it comes to children’s stories about arctic and antarctic, there are a variety of titles. Antarctica is the earth’s southernmost and fifth-largest continent, dividing the southern waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The longest tusks can reach over eight feet long (2.4 meters). The dark sea floor of the Antarctic, beneath sea ice, is covered with life. Here a metagenomic study of seawater samples (n = 60) collected from different depths at 28 … Although both are icy and frigid, the poles are actually more different than you might expect. Even in the twenty-four-hour light of summer, the multi-year sea ice can be nearly 2 meters thick and the ship's job is to cut right through the ice, no matter its thickness. Some animals make fantastically long migrations, moving from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back again every year, living an endless polar summer. In the winter narwhals live offshore among the ice floes, but in the summer, when the ice melts, they migrate towards the shore and congregate in summering grounds. Arctic Cod are critical players in the Arctic food web. The Arctic and Antarctic may be polar opposites, but in one sense they are connected despite being thousands of kilometres apart. Orcas, also known as killer whales, can be found in both the Arctic and the Southern Oceans. The Antarctic is characterized by the blowing of strong winds. The mainstay of the Shishmaref diet is the bearded seal. A region with vaguely defined limits, it extends over six countries that border the Arctic Ocean: Canada, the USA (Alaska), Denmark (Greenland), Russia, Norway and Iceland. this video shows the difference between the arctic and the antarctic. And it is not just temperatures that are changing due to the increases in carbon dioxide. The blooms of algae and phytoplankton feed zooplankton and larger predators, which are themselves in turn eaten, and so on up the food chain. See how well you know the Poles and the regions surrounding them. Warmer temperatures also cause sea level to rise and melt the permafrost, or frozen soil. The symbol of the Arctic is often the polar bear, the pole's cute yet fearsome top predator. • The Arctic has indigenous people such as Inuits, Indians and Siberians, but Antarctic remains unpopulated. In keeping with this mandate, the Arctic Studies Center specifically studies northern peoples, exploring history, archaeology, social change and human lifestyles across the circumpolar world. From giant glaciers to thin pack ice, each has distinctive characteristics, and those who have spent time in the Poles, from native people to sailors, have hundreds of names for the different kinds of ice. China in the Arctic and Antarctic: A Threat? Without phytoplankton and algae, the large marine animals would not have food to eat. The graph is provided by the. The Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. That is Arctic is at the North pole and Antarctic at the South pole. • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. Antarctica is a continent devoid of human settlement, except for the over 50 research stations built there by 27 different countries. It used to be ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice. A 2018 study found that 10.7 percent of Antarctica's coastal glaciers are in retreat. The male penguins huddle together and keep the egg warm by balancing it on their feet and covering it with their skin. From Shishmaref to Sachs Harbour, Canada, Arctic communities are on the frontlines of climate change. Unlike the Arctic, there are no indigenous communities based in Antarctica. Before Antarctica officially acquired its name, the phrase was used to describe places that contrasted the north. Sea ice forms during the winter, more than doubling the size of the Antarctic continent, and then melts in the spring and summer. Secondly, Antarctica is the highest of all the continents at an average height of 2,300m (7,546 feet or 1.4 miles) more than twice the average height of Asia, the next in line and 3-6 times as high as the other continents. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been rising for more than a century, with large contributions from the fossil fuels used to power our homes, businesses, and cars. • Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas. In other words, Arctic and Antarctic can be defined as regions related to North and South poles. Icebergs are formed when chunks of glacial ice break off (called calving) from an ice sheet or shelf. Both the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean are defined by ice and dramatic shifts between endless day and endless night. But, further genetic testing proved that they were in fact, not the same species and that the miles between do make a difference. (R. Hopcroft, UAF, Hidden Ocean 2005 NOAA. It is surrounded by Greenland, Canada, and Russia. In certain regions of the Antarctic, sea ice cover is actually growing. At both poles, tiny animals, called zooplankton, are near the base of the food chain. The Arctic is largely sea, with the north pole over 400 miles away from the nearest land mass. A dive tender monitors the line connected to ice divers studying creatures living on the under-side of the sea ice. Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extent are both projected to dramatically decline over the coming century. Arctic and Antarctic glaciers, icebergs, and other ice trivia. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the only ice sheets currently on Earth, and they contain 75 percent of the freshwater in the world. The main difference between Arctic and Antarctic is that the Arctic is a polar region on the Earth's northern hemisphere and Antarctic is a region around the Earth's South Pole. So scientists thought only a few species would live in both places until researchers taking part in the Census of Marine Life found over 200 species that appeared to live in both polar seas, including cold-water worms, crustaceans, sea cucumbers and pteropod snails. The Arctic is characterized by the blowing of mild winds. The Arctic and Antarctic are the two most geographically distant bioregions on earth. For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry iceat one atmosphere of partial pressure, but since CO2 only makes up 0.039% of air, temperatures of less than −140 °C (−220 °F) would be needed to produce dry ice snow in … Its formation begins in very cold water surrounded by thicker sea ice or land with a slushy mix of water and ice crystals on the sea surface, called frazil ice. When you look at the globe, Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the world. But, the Antarctic region is qualified by the presence of marine mammals such as penguins, whales and seals. A difference between Arctic and Antarctic, sea ice. ) in it. Antarctica officially acquired its name, the Arctic which forms a compound word 172,000 of them swimming the... Data from recent years swim in dense schools of 20,000 animals per cubic yard ( 540,000 cubic ). Just 10 percent and the arctic and antarctic waters of the deepest diving whales with a different habitat and preference. 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