The Kīngitanga Māori retreated into the rugged interior of the North Island and in 1865 the New Zealand Government confiscated about 12,000 km2 of Māori land (4% of New Zealand's land area) for white settlement—an action that quickly provoked the Second Taranaki War. [31] The outcome of the armed conflict in Taranaki between 1860 and 1869 was a series of enforced confiscations of Taranaki tribal land from Māori blanketed as being in rebellion against the Government. Pā like these were built in the dozens, particularly during the First Taranaki War, where they eventually formed a cordon surrounding New Plymouth, and in the Waikato campaign. The Wairau Affray—described as the Wairau Massacre in early texts—was the only armed conflict of the New Zealand Wars to take place in the South Island.[16][17]. Similar History Discussions; How well equipped were the Argentine units on the Chilean Border while the Falklands War was going on? 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The biggest problem for the Māori was that their society was ill-adapted to support a sustained campaign. It condemned the "illegal imprisonment" on the Chatham Islands of a quarter of the East Coast region's adult male population and said the loss in war of an estimated 43 percent of the male population, many through acts of "lawless brutality", was a stain on New Zealand's history and character.[42]. The war was fought by more than 3,500 imperial troops brought in from Australia, as well as volunteer soldiers and militia, against Māori forces that fluctuated between a few hundred and about 1,500. Properly described as a rifled musket, it was loaded down the barrel like a conventional musket but the barrel was rifled. Meet the team. Belich also states that the Māori victory was a hollow one, leading to the invasion of the Waikato. Explore Scars on the Heart, the history of New Zealand at war, the Holocaust Gallery, which tells the story of New Zealand's Jewish refugees and the Colours gallery, which tells the story of our dual history as both Auckland´s Museum and war memorial. The war between the government and Kīngitanga Māori spread to other areas of the North Island, with the biggest single campaign being the invasion of the Waikato in 1863–1864, before hostilities concluded with the pursuits of Riwha Tītokowaru in Taranaki (1868–1869) and Rangatira (chief) Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki on the east coast (1868–1872). Governor Browne accepted the purchase with full knowledge of the circumstances and tried to occupy the land, anticipating it would lead to armed conflict, and a demonstration of the substantive sovereignty the British believed they had gained in the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. The South Island, also known by the Māori name Te Waipounamu, is the largest of New Zealand’s two major islands. [48], A special 65-man bush-scouring corps, the Forest Rangers, composed of local farmers who were familiar with the bush, had proven guerrilla techniques and were capable of "roughing it", was formed in August 1863; the Forest Rangers split into two separate companies in November, with the second led by Gustavus von Tempsky and both served in Waikato and Taranaki. The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the Colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other. The earliest conflicts in the 1840s happened at a time when Māori were still the predominant power, but by the 1860s settler numbers and resources were much greater. In 1845 George Grey arrived in New Zealand to take up his appointment as governor. Total losses among the imperial, volunteer and militia troops are estimated to have been 238, while Māori casualties totalled about 200. They were previously commonly referred to as the Land Wars or the Māori Wars[2] while Māori language names for the conflicts included Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ("the great New Zealand wars") and Te riri Pākehā ("the white man's anger"). The various conflicts of the New Zealand wars span a considerable period, and the causes and outcomes differ widely. A peace settlement was reached in early 1848.[25]. Wounded three times in battle, he gained a reputation for being immune to death and uttered prophecies that had the appearance of being fulfilled. This site is produced by the History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. [20], After the Battle of Ruapekapeka, Heke and Kawiti were ready for peace. New Zealand’s participation in the Cold War was shaped by its decision to support the Western powers in their confrontation with the Soviet Union after the Second World War. Māori besieged the town before mounting a frontal attack in July 1847. The British Army were professional soldiers who had experience fighting in various parts of the Empire, many from India and Afghanistan, and were led by officers who were themselves trained by men who had fought at Waterloo. In April 1847 an accidental shooting of a minor Wanganui Māori chief led to a bloody revenge attack on a settler family; when the perpetrators were captured and hanged, a major raid was launched on the town as a reprisal, with homes plundered and burned and livestock stolen. The Militia Ordinance 1845 provided for the compulsory training or service within 40 km of their town by all able-bodied European men aged between 18 and 60; the Auckland Militia and Volunteers reached a peak of about 1650 on active service in the early stages of the Waikato campaign;[27] and the last force—the Taranaki Militia—was released from service in 1872. Coinciding with a violent raid on a European settlement on the East Coast by Te Kooti, the attacks shattered what European colonists regarded as a new era of peace and prosperity, creating fears of a "general uprising of hostile Māoris". Historians have also been divided on the result. History of medals in New Zealand. They fought a combined Māori contingent of about 4,000. A long series of bush raids on his supply lines forced Cameron to build an extensive network of forts and redoubts through the area. Te Kooti, who had been held without trial on the island for two years, asked that he and his followers be left in peace, but within two weeks they were being pursued by a force of militia, government troops and Māori volunteers. Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. The conflict, which overlapped the wars in Waikato and Tauranga, was fuelled by a combination of factors: lingering Māori resentment over the sale of land at Waitara in 1860 and government delays in resolving the issue; a large-scale land confiscation policy launched by the government in late 1863; and the rise of the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Marire syncretic religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity. New Zealand's ancient penguin was as big as a human [43] At the outbreak of Taranaki hostilities in 1860, reinforcements were brought from Auckland to boost the New Plymouth garrison, raising the total force of regulars to 450 and for many months the total number of Māori under arms exceeded the number of troops in Taranaki. [36][37], Titokowaru, who had fought in the Second Taranaki War, was the most skilful West Coast Māori warrior. The pursuit turned into a four-year guerrilla war, involving more than 30 expeditions[10] by colonial and Māori troops against Te Kooti's dwindling number of warriors. "[12] This led to considerable disagreement over the meaning of the Treaty. It has an area of 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 square miles), and is bordered by the Cook Strait to the north, the Tasman Sea to … -----Volume 1 covers the Social, Politic & Diplomatic history of New Zealand's participation as a part of the British Commonwealth in the Korean War 1950-53. A number of fictionalised accounts of the New Zealand Wars have been adapted for film and literature: Imperial regiments and units stationed in New Zealand, The Colonial New Zealand Wars, Tim Ryan and Bill Parham, pg28. Māori united under proven military commanders including Rewi Maniapoto and Tikaokao of Ngāti Maniapoto and Wiremu Tamihana of Ngāti Hauā.[56]. At Gate Pā, during the 1864 Tauranga Campaign, Māori withstood a day-long bombardment in their underground shelters and trenches. Sometimes there were gaps in the palisade, which led to killing traps. Essays about war memorials from the South African and First World Wars and features on objects of war and military mascots. Governor Thomas Gore-Browne began making arrangements for a Waikato campaign to destroy the Kīngitanga stronghold at the close of the First Taranaki War. Page 3 – Choosing sides New Zealand backed Britain and the United States against the Soviet Union as the Cold War began in … The earliest conflicts in the 1840s happened at a time when Māori were still the predominant power, but by the 1860s settler numbers and resources were much greater. During the Flagstaff War Kawiti and Heke appear to have followed a strategy of drawing the colonial forces into attacking a fortified pā, from which the warriors could fight from a strong defensive position that was secure from cannon fire. [29] The Hauhau movement became a unifying factor for Taranaki Māori in the absence of individual Māori commanders. In 1855 just 1,250 Imperial troops, from two under-strength British regiments, were in New Zealand. Flag of New Zealand. Most of those of European background had been born in New Zealand and had no memories of or nostalgia for Britain, often called “home.” In the 1890s New Zealand Natives Associations were established by native-born European New Zealanders. [27], The Colonial Defence Force, a cavalry unit of about 100 men, was formed by Colonel Marmaduke Nixon in May 1863[46] and served in Waikato[47] and militia forces were also used throughout the New Zealand wars. Von Tempsky, Artist and Adventurer. Although cheap and easy to build, a gunfighter pā required a significant input of labour and resources. The effect was a creeping confiscation of almost 4,000 km2 (1,500 sq mi) of land, with little distinction between the land of loyal or rebel Māori owners. Numerous reports by the Waitangi Tribunal have criticised Crown actions during the wars, and also found that the Māori, too, had breached the treaty. Parihaka's population grew to over 2,000 before the government sent the constabulary to arrest Te Whiti and his supporters on 5 November 1881. The main weapon used by the British forces in the 1860s was the Pattern 1853 Enfield. [62] While the British could defeat Māori in battle, the defeats were often not decisive. The causes were similar—dubious land purchases by the New Zealand Company and the desire of the settlers to move on to land before disputes over titles were resolved—and the two conflicts shared many of the same protagonists. Ensign of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. Fighting broke out and 22 Europeans were killed, as well as four to six Māori. A Dutchman, Abel Tasman, was the first European to sight the country but it was the British who made New Zealand part of their empire. There were trenches and rifle pits to protect the occupants and, later, very effective artillery shelters. [14] After a series of battles and actions the war ended in a ceasefire, with neither side explicitly accepting the peace terms of the other. The 1840 English language version of the Treaty of Waitangi guaranteed that individual Māori iwi (tribes) should have undisturbed possession of their lands, forests, fisheries and other taonga (treasures) in return for becoming British subjects, selling land to the government only (the right of pre-emption) and surrendering sovereignty to the British Crown. The flagstaff had previously flown the colours of United Tribes of New Zealand but now carried the Union Jack and therefore symbolised the grievances of Heke and his ally Te Ruki Kawiti, as to changes that had followed the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. If you have a deceased family member you think qualified for a medal they never claimed, their closest living relative can apply for it on their behalf. grievances in relation to the Treaty of Waitangi, 40th (2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot, First Taranaki War, Invasion of the Waikato, 65th (Yorkshire North Riding) Regiment of Foot, 80th (South Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot, Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements, "Chapter 11: The Fight at Boulcott's Farm", Chapter 20: Opening of the Titokowaru's Campaign, "Marmaduke George Nixon", The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, "Armed forces", The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, "Turanga Tangata Turanga Whenua: The Report on the Turanganui a Kiwa Claims", "Ngāti Pāhauwera Treaty Claims Settlement Bill 273-2 (2011), Government Bill – New Zealand Legislation", "Date set to commemorate land wars | Ministry for Culture and Heritage", "Compulsory New Zealand history curriculum will 'open Pandora's box, The New Zealand Wars / Nga Pakanga Whenua O Mua, Documenting research of New Zealand War Medal recipients,, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Oceania, 19th-century military history of the United Kingdom, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2010, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2017, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Loss of Māori land, retreat of Kingitanga to. The British set out to fight a European-style war, based on engaging with the opposing forces, besieging and then capturing fortified positions. For example, the capture of Ruapekapeka Pā can be considered a British tactical victory, but it was purpose-built as a target for the British, and its loss was not damaging; Heke and Kawiti managed to escape with their forces intact. History of New Zealand Māori arrival and settlement. The South African ('Boer') War took New Zealand troops to a foreign battlefield for the first time. The British and the French had established mission stations, and missionaries had received land from iwi for houses, schools, churches, and farms. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Ian McGibbon, The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History, p.373. In the Māori language version of the Treaty, however, the word "sovereignty" was translated as kawanatanga which was a new word meaning "governance. [68] In reality, land was confiscated from both "loyal" and "rebel" tribes alike. It has also participated in several wars, including World Wars I and II. Although Māori were initially fought by British forces, the New Zealand government developed its own military force, including local militia, rifle volunteer groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and kūpapa (pro-government Māori). All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. Other rangers corps during the New Zealand wars included the Taranaki Bush Rangers, Patea Rangers, Opotiki Volunteer Rangers, Wanganui Bush Rangers and Wellington Rangers. Campaigners on both sides of the New Zealand wars had developed distinctive war strategies and tactics. He also assumed the roles of a priest and prophet of the extremist Hauhau movement of the Pai Mārire religion, reviving ancient rites of cannibalism and propitiation of Māori gods with the human heart torn from the first slain in a battle. The Waikato campaign cost the lives of 700 British and colonial soldiers and about 1,000 Māori.[28]. [58] They were usually built so that they were almost impossible to surround completely, but usually presented at least one exposed face to invite attack from that direction. [64][65][66], Revolvers were mainly used by officers but were a general issue for the Forest Rangers. New Zealand History Science and Natural History This fifty volume series covers all areas of New Zealand's involvement in the Second World War, from detailed accounts of particular battalions, to the political and economic background and consequences, to … [49] From September 1863 the first contingents of what was planned as 5,000 military settlers—recruited on the goldfields of Australia and Otago with promises of free grants of land confiscated from "rebel" Māori—also began service in the Waikato. First World War. Heke's confidence waned after he was wounded in battle with Tāmati Wāka Nene and his warriors, and by the realisation that the British had far more resources than he could muster, including some Pākehā Māori, who supported the colonial forces. Governor Thomas Gore Browne's provocative purchase of a disputed block of land at Waitara in 1859 set the government on a collision course with the Kīngitanga movement, and the government interpreted the Kīngitanga response as a challenge to the Crown's authority. Although both were scheduled to depart at the end of the year, Browne succeeded in retaining one of them for use in New Plymouth, where settlers feared the spread of intertribal violence. The clash was sparked when settlers led by a representative of the New Zealand Company—which held a false title deed to a block of land—attempted to clear Māori off the land ready for surveying. This met resistance from the Kīngitanga (Māori King) movement that emerged in the 1850s and opposed further European encroachment. The British repeatedly mounted often lengthy expeditions to besiege a pā, which would absorb their bombardment and possibly one or two attacks, and then be abandoned by the Māori. The state of war with Germany was officially held to have existed since 9:30 pm on 3 September 1939 (local time), simultaneous with that of Britain, but in fact New Zealand's declaration of war was not made until confirmation had been … A long campaign would disrupt food supplies and epidemics resulted in significant numbers of deaths among the Māori. [73] In 2019, a commemorative plaque was unveiled for the New Zealand Wars in the New Zealand House of Representatives.[74]. The land on the Wairau Plains had supposedly been bought earlier by The New Zealand Company, but the local Maori disputed that claim. He persuaded the Colonial Office in London to send more than 10,000 Imperial troops to New Zealand and General Sir Duncan Cameron was appointed to lead the campaign. [32], East coast hostilities erupted in April 1865 and, as in the Second Taranaki War, sprang from Māori resentment of punitive government land confiscations coupled with the embrace of radical Pai Marire expression. For the New Zealanders, this was a war fought close to home. [38] Although Titokowaru's forces were numerically small and initially outnumbered in battle 12 to one by government troops,[7] the ferocity of their attacks provoked fear among settlers and prompted the resignation and desertion of many militia volunteers, ultimately leading to the withdrawal of most government military forces from South Taranaki and giving Titokowaru control of almost all territory between New Plymouth and Wanganui. [50] Grey blocked Cameron's attempts to dispatch the first regiments from New Zealand in May 1865 and the first regiment finally embarked in January 1866. The conflict was sparked by Te Kooti's return to New Zealand after two years of internment on the Chatham Islands, from where he had escaped with almost 200 Māori prisoners of war and their families. Although about half of this was subsequently paid for or returned to Māori control, it was often not returned to its original owners. National Army Museum. The various conflicts of the New Zealand wars span a considerable period, and the causes and outcomes differ widely. When first settled by Māori almost a millennium ago, there was much land and resources, but war began to break out as the country's carrying capacity was approached. Digitised by New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. This was the favoured weapon of the New Zealand Forest Rangers because of its shortness, its lightness, and its ability to be reloaded while the marksman lay down—unlike the Enfield, which required the soldier to stand to load the powder—and could be loaded on the run. 1996, 2nd edition, hard bound in dust jacket, 6 1/4 x 9 1/2, xiv, 468 pages, illus, 8 maps, extensive notes, bibliog, index. (1990). Traders, Sydney businessmen and the New Zealand Company had bought large tracts of land before 1840. Military history. [5][6] Later campaigns were aimed at quashing the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Mārire religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity.[7]. Dissatisfied with the Māori King Movement's reluctance to continue its fight against European invasion and confiscation, Te Kooti offered Māori an Old Testament vision of salvation from oppression and a return to a promised land. [14] Governor Gore Browne succeeded in bringing 3500 Imperial troops from the Australian colonies to quash this perceived challenge, and within four years a total of 9,000 British troops had arrived in New Zealand, assisted by more than 4,000 colonial and kūpapa (pro-government Māori) fighters as the government sought a decisive victory over the "rebel" Māori. The New Zealand campaigns involved Māori warriors from a range of iwi, most of which were allied with the Kīngitanga movement, fighting a mix of Imperial troops, local militia groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and kūpapa, or "loyalist" Māori. A decade of fighting began. They were built with a view to defence, but primarily they were built to safely store food. In early 1844, the new governor, Robert FitzRoy, investigated the incident and declared the settlers were at fault. There were many causes of the Flagstaff War and Heke had a number of grievances in relation to the Treaty of Waitangi. 1860-08-03 The Second Maori War begins in New Zealand; 1861-03-19 The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand; 1863-07-17 Māori forces are defeated by British troops at Koheroa, Waikato, in the New Zealand Wars between Maori tribes and British colonials; 1863-10-31 The Maori Wars resumed as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron began their Invasion of the Waikato [59], For a long time, the modern pā effectively neutralised the overwhelming disparity in numbers and armaments. Belich has estimated that the total Māori mobilisation was at least 4,000 warriors, representing one-third of the total manpower available. The experiences and emotions show on every page of the Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War. [35], War flared again in Taranaki in June 1868 as Riwha Titokowaru, chief of Ngāruahine, responded to the continued surveying and settlement of confiscated land with well-planned and effective attacks on settlers and government troops in an effort to block the occupation of Māori land. Despite New Zealand’s isolation, the country has been fully engaged in international affairs since the early 20th century, being an active member of a number of intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. The First World War had a seismic impact on New Zealand, reshaping the country's perception of itself and its place in the world. More than 16,000 km2 (6,200 sq mi) of land was confiscated. Individual New Zealanders have participated in a number of international conflicts that saw no official involvement by the New Zealand government. [12] Some Māori wanted to sign to consolidate peace and in hopes of ending the long intertribal Musket Wars (1807–1842) others wanted to keep their tino rangatiratanga, such as the Tūhoe in the Uruweras. [44], The buildup increased rapidly under Grey's term as governor: when the second round of hostilities broke out in Taranaki in May 1863 he applied to the Secretary of State in London for the immediate dispatch of three more regiments and also wrote to the Australian governors asking for whatever British troops that could be made available. From, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 02:01. Between the late 1940s and early 1970s, New Zealanders fought in Korea, Malaya, Borneo and Vietnam. Hostilities began on 17 March 1860. From 1863 the army, working with greater numbers of troops and heavy artillery, systematically took possession of Māori land by driving off the inhabitants, adopting a "scorched earth" strategy of laying waste to Māori villages and cultivations, with attacks on villages, whether warlike or otherwise. The All Blacks use 'Ka Mate' as their haka, which was composed in the 1820s by the Maori chief Te Rauparaha. Fletcher, Henry James, Rev., Turnbull, Alexander (ed. Guerrilla-style tactics were used by both sides in later campaigns, often fought in dense bush. The colonial government summoned thousands of British troops to mount major campaigns to overpower the Kīngitanga (Māori King) movement and also acquire farming and residential land for British settlers. There was desperate fighting on small island outposts where the rules of war could be ignored. The government also responded with legislation to imprison Māori opponents and confiscate expansive areas of the North Island for sale to settlers, with the funds used to cover war expenses[10][11]—punitive measures that on the east and west coasts provoked an intensification of Māori resistance and aggression. Many of the Māori fighters had been raised during the Musket Wars, the decades-long bitter intertribal fighting during which warriors had perfected the art of building defensive fortifications around a pā. Cameron used soldiers to build the 18 km-long Great South Road to the border of Kīngitanga territory and on 9 July 1863 Grey ordered all Māori living between Auckland and the Waikato take an oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria or be expelled south of the Waikato River; when his ultimatum was rejected the vanguard of the army crossed the frontier into Kīngitanga territory and established a forward camp. 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