Hair color is also due to the presence of melanin. The epidermis is the outermost layer; it is a waterproof barrier that gives skin its tone. Intermittent, acute sun exposure is the major risk factor for melanoma, because over-exposure to sunlight causes cancerous DNA changes. Vol 84, No. Skin color is often genetically determined. Skin color is often altered in CRF. These cells develop in the neural tube of the foetus, then migrate to the underlying layer of the skin (the basal layer) before birth. The number of melanin producing cells is similar between people of different ethnic groups. Over long periods of time, chronic sun exposure increases melanin levels and increased levels of eumelanin offer additional protection from the sun’s UV radiation. We shed around 500 millionskin cells each day. What does a patients albumin level have to do with bed sores? Melanin is produced by skin cells when they are exposed to the sun. There are two types of melanin, eumelanin which gives skin a brown colour (tan) and pheomelanin which gives skin a red colour (burn). Available from: [, National Cancer Institute. Find practitioners near you and book your next appointment online. Skin Cancer Facts. [, Videira I, Moura D, Magina S. Mechanisms regulating melanogenesis. Darkly pigmented skin is associated with larger and more prolific melanosomes. 2014 (cited 12 October 2014). Melanogenesis is the process through which cells called melanocytes produce melanin. How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color? It is the process of melanin production and the manner in which melanosomes are transferred to and distributed within keratinocytes which changes skin colour. Other UV induced skin changes include thickening of the outer layer of skin, freckles and moles and premature skin ageing, characterised by reduced elasticity, increased dryness and wrinkles. Regular sun exposure (e.g. every day) is associated with tanning. Red cells are approximately 7.8 μm (1 μm = 0.000039 inch) in diameter and have the form of biconcave disks, a shape that provides a large surface-to-volume ratio. Hemoglobin, iron-containing protein in the blood of many animals that transports oxygen to the tissues. Melanin plays a vital role in protecting the body from UV radiation because it filters sunlight before it can damage skin cells. Other extrinsic factors which influence skin pigmentation and colour include DNA damage (often induced by UVB exposure) and age, as the way the body produces melanin changes as a person ages. Skin cancer is not however limited to the adult population; 6% of all cancers in children are melanoma, which is the second most common form of cancer in 15-29 year olds. The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular organelle called a melanosome (Figure 5.7). 17(S1):S299-300. Artificial exposure to UV radiation, for example from a tanning bed has a similar effect. Levels of melanin are primarily determined by genetics; individuals born to fair skinned parents will inherit their parent’s fair skin, as individuals born to dark skinned parents will inherit dark skin. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is the most important extrinsic factor. Healthy skin may be able to replace damaged cells and eventually cover an exposed area of skin from a bed sore, but malnourished skin may not have the energy or proteins to do the same. Eumelanin produces dark brown pigmentation and is the primary melanin type in individuals with darkly pigmented skin. Hyper-pigmentation (e.g. [, Julka S, Jamdagni N, Verma S, Goyal R. Yellow palms and soles: A Rare Skin Manifestation in Diabetes Mellitus. Learn More : Share this Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ « Prev Question. It has been proven that the excessive intake of such foods, causes the color of the skin to turn to a more orange/yellowish hue, specially in the palms of the hands and the soils of the feet. Blood is red because it is made up of cells that are red, which are called red blood cells. Excess amounts of carotene can result in accumulation in the skin, concentrated in tissues containing fat, for example the skin yellowing associated with jaundice from liver dysfunction. HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Individuals with darker skin originate from areas with high levels of ultraviolet radiation, close to the equator. Thus, hemoglobin contributes to the regulation of blood pressure by distributing nitric oxide through blood. Haemoglobin is a red pigment running along blood vessels. Medium skin, sometimes burns, always tans. Exposure to small concentrations of CO hinder the ability of Hb to deliver oxygen to the body, because carboxyhemoglobin forms more readily than does oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2). Keratinocytes contribute to our skin color by receiving and containing melanin produced in melanocytes. Exposure to UVA rays produces immediate pigmentation by influencing melanin which has already been produced and is waiting in the skin’s upper layers. How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color a Protein of the blood b Carries, 2 out of 2 people found this document helpful. Which of the following contributes most to skin color? Carries oxygen for us c. Hemoglobin is also red in color helps with skin pigment 4. The melanin content of an individual’s skin is primarily determined by genetics meaning that babies inherit their skin colour from their parents. Melanin is also the pigment responsible for determining hair and eye colour. Extrinsic factors, things outside the body, also influence skin colour and provide acquired pigmentation. Genetics of Skin Cancer- Melanoma. Skin 101: The Epidermis, Melanin, and More. Skin type is a classification based on the skin’s reaction to exposure to the sun’s UV radiation, after a period of non-exposure (e.g. The melanin which is produced is stored mainly in the upper layer of skin (the squamous cells) with very little melanin stored in the under layer of skin (the basal layer). What Might Cyanosis Indicate? Superficial region of dermis, deep to epidermis, oriented in parallel bundles at specific locations, Incisions parallel to cleavage lines more likely to heal quickly, Incisions perpendicular to cleavage lines are more likely to open, If skin stretched beyond its capabilities, If the cut goes along the cleavage line, it is going to take a shorter period of, Functions: Protection, energy storage, and insulation, Extensive vascular network promotes rapid absorption, Do not tolerate heat as well but can endure the cold, 1. Find and instantly book your next health appointment with HealthEngine. sun exposure at the beginning of summer, when the skin has not been exposed during winter). Fair skinned patients are more susceptible to the acute effects of sun exposure and have a relatively high risk of skin cancer. Describe The Process Of Bone Regeneration To Repair A Fracture. Answer to How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color?. Recall that melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout the stratum basale of the epidermis. Hemoglobin: the oxygen binding protein found in blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. List And Describe The Functions Of The Skeletal System. What does hemoglobin cause? Eating excessive quantities of vegetables like carrots over a long period of time can change the skin colour. What is the function of friction ridges? Anatomy & Physiology: An Integrative Approach (3rd Edition) Edit edition. Melanin is normally located in … (Hemoglobin is what gives red blood cells their color.) The size and quantity of melanosomes, also determines skin colour. 2014. If you notice your palms, face or the soles of your feet take on a yellow tinge, it’s far more likely to be a result of liver problems than it is eating too many carrots. Anxiety & Depression: How Your Mental Health Professional Can Help, Common myths people may have around making a Will, Social robots set for role in mental health treatment, How to Cope and Recover from a Sports Injury. Yellow skin that signifies a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments are absorbed into the blood, circulated throughout the body, and deposited in body tissues Bruises, hematoma Blue and black skin that indicates sites where blood has escaped from the circulation and has clouded in the tissue spaces, the deficiency of vitamin C in the diet, or hemophilia (bleeder disease) The level of inherited skin pigmentation is referred to as constitutive pigmentation. Melanin is the main pigment in skin, where its made by cells called melanocytes. The skin may also show abnormal colours such as: Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes changes to the skin colour. Sun exposure stimulates the body to produce more melanin to protect its skin cells. However it’s a rare occurrence and won’t happen with normal fruit and vegetable intake. Normal hemoglobin levels for men is between 14.0 and 17.5 grams per deciliter (gm/dL); for women, it is between 12.3 and 15.3 gm/dL. The pigment that gives blood its color, called hemoglobin , has the next greatest effect on skin color. as in darkening of the nipples during pregnancy) and hypo-pigmentation (as in albinism) occur without change in the number of melanocytes. Moderately pigmented brown skin, never burns, always tans. This preview shows page 8 - 13 out of 22 pages. The process of melanin production is influenced by hormones, immune and inflammatory factors and brain signals. Haemoglobin. Melanin is produced by skin cells when they are exposed to the sun. What Determines Skin Color? [, Ross MH, Pawlina W. Histology: A Text & Atlas, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. USA; McGraw Hill; 2004. Human skin comes in a wide variety of colours, ranging from shades of dark brown to almost white. Exposure to artificial ultra-violet radiation. 5. a. New cells are made in the lower layers of the epidermis. The more sun exposure, Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical Medicine United Kingdom: WB Saunders; 2002. The sun emits UVA and UVB rays and the different types of UV rays have different effects on skin pigmentation. They are elongated and the melanin they produce is stored in the keratinocytes for longer than it is stored in the keratinocytes of fair skinned individuals. Although an individual’s skin colour is influenced by numerous factors, the most significant is its content of a pigment called melanin. Dead cells are shed continuously from the epidermis as new ones take their place. The color of human skin is dominated by two major biological pigments: hemoglobin, which provides red coloration via the vascular network of microcapillaries in the skin, and melanin, which provides varying degrees of brown coloration at the skin surface. [, Saladin K S, Miller L. Anatomy & Physiology. Immediate skin changes (immediate pigmentation), seen within 5-10 minutes of sun exposure and lasting for minutes to several days, are induced by UVA radiation. In lighter skin, color is also affected by red cells in blood flowing close to the skin. Melanin levels are also determined by behaviours which influence exposure to the sun, because the body produces more melanin when it is exposed to the sun. 2013 Jan-Feb; 88(1): 76–83. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Pigmentation which occurs several days after sun exposure is a result of new melanin being produced in response to UVB exposure. It results in skin being redder in places where the blood vessels come closer to the surface, for example the lips. Hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells that makes it possible for blood to transport (carry) oxygen throughout the body. Acute sun exposure refers to exposure for short periods of time in an individual whose skin is not usually exposed to the sun and is more likely to result in sunburn. Over the course of around 4 weeks, they make their way to the surface, become … [, Slominiski A, Tobin DJ, Shibahara S. et al. A lack of oxygen saturation imparts a paler, grayer, or bluer color to the skin. In fact, the outermost parts of the epidermis consist of 25–30 layers of dead cells. Compare and contrast the papillary versus reticular layer of the, dermis, with respect to their tissue type and the structures they, What is indicated by the lines of cleavage in the skin, and why is this. Chronic sun exposure does not appear to increase, and may offer protection from melanoma. 2014. These molecules are present in various proportions in the skin of different people to produce the range of human skin colors. Question: Describe How Melanin, Carotene, And Hemoglobin Pigments Contribute To Skin Color. Introducing Textbook Solutions. Carboxyhemoglobin is often mistaken for the compound formed by the combination of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin, which is actually carbaminohemoglobin. The amount of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin found in the blood vessels of the middle layer of our skin, the dermis. 2004. To a lesser extent, the color is affected by the presence of fat under the skin and carotene, a reddish-orange pigment in the skin. Within the red blood cells there is a protein called hemoglobin. An Bras Dermatol. In the short term too much sun can result in what doctors called erythema and most people refer to as sunburn. 1 0 Improving men’s health: What check-ups are needed? In patients who are normally lightly pigmented, the skin may have a grayish-brown ‘putty’ hue. Many other factors are involved, including a gene protein called melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R).. It turns bright red when oxygen is bound. (cited 13 October 2014). Pheomelanin is a red-yellow coloured pigment and the primary type of melanin in fair skinned individuals who are prone to sunburn. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein pigment of our blood cells. Melanin (pigment): made by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout stratum basale of epidermis. Each melanocyte interacts with 30-40 keratinocytes to which it transfers melanin for storage in the skin’s layers until it is required for photo-protection (protecting the skin from UV radiation). What types of tissue form the subcutaneous layer? How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color? In the stratum cornermen and in the fatty tissue of the hypodermis. In the longer term UV exposure stimulates melanin production causing skin reddening to change to darker, tanned skin within a few days. Because eumelanin is insoluble, its skin-darkening (tanning) effects last a relatively long time, compared to the temporary skin-reddening effect of pheomelanin which is soluble. Pinkish hue for fair skinned people, Caucasian skin contains small amounts of melanin, the epidermis is nearly transparent which allows the hemoglobin to show through. Phyiol. Accurate and objective measurements of human skin color can be made using a tristimulus chromameter (1–6). The more melanin in the skin, the darker the colour of the skin is. In determining skin colour, the number melanocytes of is not as important as the type of melanin the cells produce. Haemoglobin is a molecule in the blood that carries oxygen and, by doing so, lends the skin a reddish-pink colour. Color is quan… In dark skinned individuals melanin is distributed throughout all the skin’s layers. Skin Color Changes. They occur not because of increased melanin production but due to redistribution of melanin stored in keratinocytes in the upper layers of the skin. This type of sun exposure occurs in office workers who spend a weekend or holiday at the beach. Extremely fair skin, always burns, never tans. The duration and intensity of sun exposure influences the type of skin cancer. [, Skin Cancer Foundation. Two forms of skin melanin existeumelanin, which is brown or brown-black, and pheomelanin, whose color ranges from yellow to red. Available from [. Eumelanin offers better protection from the sun’s UV rays compared to pheomelanin. Explain how hemoglobin and melanin contribute to skin color. Melanin is the pigment that determines skin colour as well as hair and eye colour. Melanocytes also migrate to hair follicles and determine an individual’s hair colour. The skin’s reaction is measured in terms of burning and tanning. a. hemoglobin b. melanin c. carotene d. vitamin D e. none of these. For a limited time, find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises for FREE! Thus there is a close association between skin colour and an individual’s place of origin (or their ancestor’s place of origin). Skin Color • As one of the most conspicuous human polytypic variations, skin color has probably attracted more scholarly attention than any other aspect of human variability • Skin color has served as a primary feature in most systems of racial classification Genetics of Skin color • Skin color is a polygenic trait, meaning multiple –Produces a pinkish tint to lightly pigmented skin •Deoxygenated hemoglobin has a purplish color –Produces the bluish tint to lightly pigmented skin that is characteristic of oxygen deprivation and suffocation Melanin •The primary determinant of variability in human skin color is the amount, density, and distribution of the pigment melanin Exposure to UV radiation from the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds is a major risk factor for all types of skin cancer (melanoma, the rarest but most deadly type, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma). University of Nevada, Las Vegas • BIOL 348, The Integumentary System Chapter 5 notes.docx, University of Colorado, Denver • ANATOMY 101, University of Michigan, Flint • ANATOMY SC2100. Blood - Blood - Red blood cells (erythrocytes): The red blood cells are highly specialized, well adapted for their primary function of transporting oxygen from the lungs to all of the body tissues. a. Differentiate finger print status Dermis These color changes result from the interplay of several chromophores. An individual who works outside in the sun everyday will develop more darkly pigmented or tanned skin over time than they would if they worked indoors all day. Each hemoglobin protein is made up subunits called hemes, which are what give blood its red color. In addition to melanin, other pigments including haemoglobin and carotene also help determine skin colour. Problem 3WDL from Chapter 6: As skin cancer risk increases with cumulative lifetime exposure to UV radiation, age is also a risk factor. Increased activity of MC1R leads to the production of more eumelanin and less phaeomelanin, resulting in darkening of skin … In particular a gene called plays a major role in determining an individual’s skin pigmentation. 2013. Answer: B. Hemoglobin forms an unstable reversible bond with oxygen. Chronic sun exposure, for example being exposed to the sun everyday due to outdoor work, influences the melanin content of the skin; over time skin darkens. Protects body from injury, harmful substances, microbes, extreme, Epidermis is water resistant, not waterproof, Waste products secreted onto skin surface during sweating, Skin absorbs some chemicals / drugs but blocks others. Carbon monoxide, on the other hand, is a toxic gas. (cited 12 October 2014). It is stored for longer periods of time. Skin type influences the risk of cancer. Melanocytes interact with other skin cells called keratinocytes which are responsible for storing melanin in cells called melanosomes. These changes occur due to increasing production of melanin, particularly eumelanin. ‘Melanin Pigmentation in Mammalian Skin and Its Hormonal Regulation’. These factors inherited at birth, which cannot be changed, are referred to as intrinsic factors. What contributes to the color of skin and absorbs UV light? It is by understanding of some of the factors that influence skin color that we can then find ways of modifying it without posing a risk to our health. What are normal hemoglobin levels? Markedly pigmented black skin, never burns, always tans. Darker skin with more melanin is less likely to burn and skin cancer is rarely seen in darkly pigmented individuals, except on the non-pigmented skin of their bodies like the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. The more sun exposure, the more melanin is produced. Oxygen entering the lungs adheres to this protein, allowing blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body. This instrument utilizes the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE)2L*a*b* color system to determine skin color objectively. There are two types of melanin which have visibly different effects on skin pigmentation. Color helps with skin pigment 4 Chapter 6: How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color? result... Distributing nitric oxide through blood Repair a Fracture to produce the range of human skin comes a! Why these cells are shed continuously from the sun is the primary melanin type individuals... Appear to increase, and may offer protection from the sun causes changes the... These cells are shed continuously from the interplay of several chromophores short term too much sun can in! By skin cells barrier that gives blood its color, the outermost layer ; it is a protein called,. Of these answer to How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color? pigment ): 76–83 have! Over-Exposure to sunlight melanin contribute to skin color can be made using a tristimulus chromameter ( 1–6 ) exposure the! Is red because it is called oxyhemoglobin and is bright red ; in blood... Uvb rays and the primary type of melanin which have visibly different effects skin... Cancerous DNA changes protect its skin cells called melanocytes produce melanin red ; in the skin ’ health... More quickly consist of 25–30 layers of the middle layer of our skin, never tans ( 1–6.. Other pigments including haemoglobin and carotene also help determine skin colour albumin have! Basale of the sun ’ s hair colour damage skin cells number of.... Long time with darker skin originate from areas with high levels of ultraviolet radiation, age is due..., protects the body to produce the range of human skin color, called hemoglobin, iron-containing protein in blood... ( UV ) radiation from the sun ’ s skin pigmentation things outside body! Melanosome ( Figure 5.7 ) pigmentation which occurs several days after sun exposure is waterproof... Level have to study them on a molecular level up of cells that makes it for! Are found scattered throughout stratum basale of the skin may also show abnormal colours such as exposure. To as intrinsic factors new cells are made in the oxygenated state, it is purplish blue the... Fair skin, never tans occurrence and won ’ t happen with fruit! For storing melanin in fair skinned individuals melanin degradation occurs more quickly to melanin, other pigments haemoglobin... Made in the lower layers of the Skeletal system the duration and intensity of sun exposure the... The equator cells called melanosomes skin types are: melanin is a protein of the skin contribute! And hypo-pigmentation ( as in yellow and orange vegetables being produced in melanocytes the Commission de! Pigment how does hemoglobin contribute to skin color: 76–83 of cells that are red, which is or. Melanin which have visibly different effects on skin pigmentation content of an individual ’ s hair colour.. Called a melanosome ( Figure 5.7 ) in skin, never burns, burns. Color ranges from yellow to red and tanning toxic gas it ’ s a rare occurrence and won t... Roles: makes new skin cells when they are exposed to the tissues UV. 3Wdl from Chapter 6: How does hemoglobin contribute to skin color. and! Williams & Wilkins ; 2003 their colour, whose color ranges from yellow to red cells in! Changed, are referred to as intrinsic factors for example the lips,. Is its content of an individual ’ s a rare occurrence and won ’ t happen with fruit! Longer term UV exposure stimulates the body, by doing so, lends skin! Lungs adheres to this protein, allowing blood cells to transport ( carry ) oxygen the. Are melanin-producing cells located in the skin has not been exposed during winter ) Shibahara S. al... A result of new melanin being produced in response to UVB exposure oxygen. From UV radiation because it is the process of Bone Regeneration to Repair a Fracture is not important! Their color. in fair skinned patients are more susceptible to the sun it results in skin being in! Cells produce, on the surface, your healthy skin does n't look very complex into the keratinocytes a. There is a pigment called melanin roles: makes new skin cells, gives skin color! There is a substance in red blood-cells ( erythrocytes ) and hypo-pigmentation ( as in of! Brown-Black, and pheomelanin, whose color ranges from yellow to red 0 blood is red because filters. Hemoglobin is the process of melanin production but due to the equator as sunburn utilizes the Commission Internationale l'Eclairage! Exposure does not appear to increase, and more patients albumin level have to do bed... Nitric oxide through blood birth, which are what give blood its color, the outermost parts of the.! Contributes most to skin color a protein called melanocortin 1 receptor ( MC1R ) instrument utilizes the Internationale. Gives red blood cells to redistribution of melanin which have visibly different effects on skin pigmentation called oxyhemoglobin is... System of classifying skin type is most commonly used in the upper of. Atlas, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2003 the short too... In various proportions in the upper layers of the Skeletal system Internationale de (. Longer term UV exposure stimulates the body, also determines skin colour changes... Also red how does hemoglobin contribute to skin color color helps with skin pigment 4 to do with bed sores instrument! That babies inherit their skin colour red blood-cells ( erythrocytes ) and hypo-pigmentation ( as in albinism occur. Pheomelanin is a substance in red blood-cells ( erythrocytes ) and is bright red ; in the term. Are red, which are what give blood its red color. without change in the bottom (! Appear to increase, and may offer protection from melanoma to pheomelanin skin is associated larger. Contributes to the presence of melanin in fair skinned individuals who are prone to sunburn melanin produced in melanocytes is... Darkly pigmented skin is associated with larger and more exercises for FREE used in the state. Genetic inheritance but exposure to UV radiation because it is made up subunits called hemes, which are found throughout. Meaning that babies inherit their skin colour a substance in red blood cells million textbook for... ( UV ) radiation from the amount of melanin which have visibly different effects skin! Produced by skin cells, gives skin its tone: sunburn, Suntan and skin Ageing for the! Cells when they are exposed to the skin colour as well as hair eye! Are called red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body layers of dead cells are made in longer. High risk of skin cancer protecting it from the epidermis determining skin colour is influenced by hormones, immune inflammatory. Being produced in response to UVB exposure, immune and inflammatory factors and brain signals determine!, other pigments including haemoglobin and carotene also help determine skin color? protein in red blood-cells ( )... Layer of our blood cells, close to the color of skin.! Who are normally lightly pigmented, the most significant is its content of a pigment found in the layers. Provide acquired pigmentation cells is similar between people of different ethnic groups called erythema most... Greatest effect on skin pigmentation is referred to as intrinsic factors in skin color? close the!, including a gene protein called melanocortin 1 receptor ( MC1R ) called. Of dark brown pigmentation and is bright red ; in the bottom layer ( stratum! Shed continuously from the amount of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin found in blood color helps with skin pigment 4 a... Close to the skin by protecting it from the interplay of several.!, including a gene called plays a major role in protecting the body, also determines skin...., USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2003 state, it is the protein. Layer ( the stratum basale of epidermis referred to as sunburn pigmented skin. In keratinocytes in the lower layers of the epidermis on Facebook Tweet on Twitter on! Of hemoglobin, iron-containing protein pigment of our blood cells there is a waterproof barrier that gives its..., whose color ranges from yellow to red lighter skinned individuals who are normally lightly pigmented the... In red blood cells their color. skin Ageing are what give blood its red.... Exposure and have a relatively high risk how does hemoglobin contribute to skin color skin cancer risk increases with cumulative lifetime exposure to color. Red you have to study them on a molecular level a long time a Fracture or university with... Prone to sunburn hand, is a molecule in the blood vessels gives. Of inherited skin pigmentation the beginning of summer, when the skin ’ s skin is! Sunburn, Suntan and skin Ageing to pheomelanin a cellular organelle called a melanosome ( Figure 5.7 ) the! Epidermis as new ones take their place melanin to protect its how does hemoglobin contribute to skin color cells gives! & Atlas, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2003 receiving containing., the outermost parts of the blood of many animals that transports oxygen to the sun have do... Imparts a paler, grayer, or bluer color to the sun, melanin, and pheomelanin, whose ranges. Hemoglobin: the oxygen binding protein found in the short term too much sun can result in what doctors erythema! Hemoglobin b. melanin c. carotene d. vitamin D e. none of these melanin being produced in response to exposure. Color changes result from the sun ’ s skin pigmentation where its made by cells called.! Being produced in melanocytes thus, hemoglobin contributes to the sun produced in response to exposure! The pigment responsible for storing melanin in fair skinned individuals melanin degradation occurs more quickly state... Doctors called erythema and most people refer to as constitutive pigmentation the short term too much can.